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World War 1 at Sea

 

World War 1 Chronology: PRINCIPAL EVENTS 1914-1918, Part 2, January to December 1916

 

The Political and Military Background to the War at Sea

Direct to 1914-15, 1917, 1918

The Reality of the War - battlecruiser HMS Indefatigable sinking
during the Battle of Jutland (Maritime Quest, click to enlarge)

on to 1917

 

 
 

 

JANUARY 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

SATURDAY 1st JANUARY

SERBIA

1st - King of Serbia arrives at Salonika (see 15th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

WEST AFRICA

1st - Yaunde (Cameroons) taken by General Dobell's forces (see September 22nd, 1915).

 

MONDAY 3rd JANUARY

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

 

 

 

 

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

Gallipoli 1915

 

Tekke "W" Beach, Gallipoli, at the date of evacuation (Corbett, Vol 3, pp246)

Helles "V" Beach, at the date of evacuation  (Corbett, Vol 3, pp247)

MEDITERRANEAN

9th - General Sir Charles Monro vacates command of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and General Sir William Birdwood vacates command of the Dardanelles army (see November 25th, 1915). (Sir Charles Monro was appointed later Commander-in-Chief in India. Sir William Birdwood later temporarily commanded the Fourth Army in France and then the Australian Corps, till eventually appointed to command the Fifth Army on May 23rd. 1918.)

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

4th - First Attempt to relieve Kut begins: relieving force begins advance from Ali Gharbi (see 21st, and December 7th, 1915).

6th - Action of Sheikh Sa'ad begins (see 4th and 8th).

8th - Action of Sheikh Sa'ad ends.

MINE WARFARE

6th - H.M.S. "King Edward VII" (below - Maritime Quest) sunk by mine off North of Scotland.

 

GALLIPOLI

7th - Evacuation of Helles begins (see 8th, and December 28th, 1915). (Plans - far left)

8th - Evacuation of the Gallipoli Peninsula completed (see 7th, and December 28th, 1915). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties.)

 

MONDAY 10th JANUARY

DIPLOMACY

10th - Entente Governments inform Greek Government of proposed transport of Serbian Army to Corfu (see 11th and 15th).

12th - Armistice concluded between Montenegro and Austria (see 20th).

13th - Greek Government refuse consent to the occupation of Corfu (see 11th).

SERBIA

15th - Serbian Government transferred to Brindisi (see December 3rd, 1915, and February 9th, 1916).

15th - King of Serbia leaves Salonika (see 1st and 17th).

UNITED STATES

15th - Von Papen papers published in U.S.A. (see December 10th, 1915).

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

10th - Mount Lovchen (Montenegro) taken by Austrian forces.

13th - Cetinje (Montenegro) occupied by Austrian forces.

15th - First Serbian troops land at Corfu (see 10th, November 30th, 1915, and February 10th, 1916).

16th - General Sarrail assumes command of all Allied forces at Salonika (see December 14th, 1917).

MEDITERRANEAN

10th - General Sir A. J. Murray takes over command of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force (see 9th). (link to British despatch on operations from January to May 1916)

CAUCASUS FRONT

11th - Russian offensive towards Erzerum begins (see February 12th).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

14th - Action of the Wadi (13th/14th).

14th - Lieut.-General Sir Percy Luke appointed Commander-in-Chief, Mesopotamia (see 19th, and August 28th).

PERSIA

13th - Kirmanshah (West Persia) occupied by Turkish forces (see February 26th).

CRUISER WARFARE

15th - British S.S. "Appam" captured by German raider "Moewe" (see December 26th, 1915, and February 1st, 1916).

 

GREECE

11th - Corfu occupied by French forces (see 10th, 18th and 15th).

MONDAY 17th JANUARY

DIPLOMACY

20th - Negotiations between Austria and Montenegro broken off. Armistice ceases (see 12th).

22nd - Rumanian Government open negotiations with Russian Government with a view to military assistance (see August 17th).

BELGIUM

18th - Baron Beyens succeeds M. J. Davignon as Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs (M. Davignon was appointed on February 28th, 1914) (see August 4th, 1917). (Baron Beyens officiated in the appointment from July 26th, 1915, till January 18th, 1916, during which period M. Davignon was absent, owing to ill-health.)

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

22nd - Antivari (Montenegro) occupied by Austrian forces (see March 1st, 1915, and November 4th, 1918).

23rd - Scutari (Albania) occupied by Austrian forces (see October 31st, 1918).

23rd - Podgoritza (Montenegro) occupied by Austrian forces.

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

17th - Keupri-Keui (Armenia) again captured by Russian forces (see December 17, 1914).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT (Also plan - right)

19th - Lieut.-General Sir Percy Lake takes over command of British forces in Mesopotamia from General Nixon (see 14th, and August 28th).

21st - First British Attack on Hanna: First Attempt to relieve Kut fails (see 4th, and March 8th).

 

MESOPOTAMIA

 

 

Lower Mesopotamia (Corbett, Vol 3, Map Case No.1)

MONDAY 24th JANUARY

BRITAIN

24th - First Military Service Bill passed by British House of Commons (see February 10th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

AVIATION

29th - Last German airship raid on Paris (see March 21st, 1915, and September 16th, 1918).

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

25th - San Giovanni di Medua (Albania) captured by Austrian forces (see June 26th, 1915, and October 29th, 1918).

 

 

CONTRABAND CONTROL

26th - United States Government make informal protest to British Government regarding their " Black List " policy (see December 23rd, 1915, and July 28th, 1916).

MERCHANT SHIPPING

27th - Shipping Control Committee formed in Great Britain (see November 3rd and 10th, 1915, and December 22nd, 1916).

MONDAY 31st JANUARY

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

AVIATION

31st - Airship raid on England; furthest penetration westwards; casualties 183 (see January 19th, 1915, and August 5th, 1918).

EASTERN FRONT

 

EAST AFRICA

31st - General Sir H. Smith-Dorrien resigns appointment as Commander-in-Chief British Forces, East Africa (see November 22nd, 1915, and February 19th, 1916). (Did not take over command owing to illness.)

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 41 ships of  92,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

FEBRUARY 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

TUESDAY 1ST FEBRUARY

RUSSIA

1st - M. Goremikin, Russian Premier, resigns (date of appointment January 30th, 1914). M. Sturmer appointed successor (see July 22nd and November 24th).

WESTERN FRONT

 

AVIATION

2nd - German airship " L.-19 " founders in the North Sea.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

2nd - Elbasan (Albania) taken by Bulgarian forces (see October 7th, 1918).

 

CRUISER WARFARE

1st - British S.S. "Appam" brought to Norfolk, Va., U.S.A., by German prize crew from raider "Moewe" (see January 15th and March 4th).

MONDAY 7th FEBRUARY

DIPLOMACY

13th - Entente Governments notify Greece of forthcoming transfer of Montenegrin Army to Corfu (see 16th).

BRITAIN

10th - Military Service Act comes into operation in Great Britain (see January 24th and May 16th).

SERBIA

9th - Serbian Government set up at Corfu (see January 15th and May 7th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

10th - Remnant of Serbian Army concentrated at Corfu (see January 15th and April 3rd).

11th - Italian detachment reaches Corfu (see January 11th and 15th).

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

12th - Russian attack on Erzerum begins (see 16th, and January 11th).

 

 

 

 

 

French "Amiral Charner"

H.M.S. "Arethusa"

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

10th - German Government send Note to United States Government stating that defensively armed merchantmen will be treated as belligerents from March 1st onwards (see 21st).

JAPANESE NAVY

8th - British Government request naval assistance from Japan (see November 14th, 1914, and April 17th, 1917).

U-BOAT WARFARE

8th - French cruiser "Amiral Charner" (left - Photo Ships) sunk by submarine off Syrian coast.

MINE WARFARE

11th - H.M.S. "Arethusa" (left - Navy Photos) sunk by mine in North Sea.

EAST AFRICA

9th - German gunboat "Hedwig von Wissman" sunk by H.M.S. "Mimi" and "Fifi" (ex-German Gunboat "Kingani"). British command of Lake Tanganyika secured (see December 26th, 1915). (link to British despatch)

MONDAY 14th FEBRUARY

DIPLOMACY

14th - Entente Powers make declaration guaranteeing to Belgium eventual independence and indemnification.

16th - Agreement concluded between British Government and chieftains of the Bakhtiari (Persia) for co-operation in protection of Persian oilfields.

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

AVIATION

16th - War Office take over anti-aircraft defence of London from the Admiralty, and become responsible for anti-aircraft defence generally throughout the kingdom.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

17th - Berat (Albania) occupied by Austrian forces (see July 10th, 1918).

ITALIAN FRONT

16th - Fifth Battle of the Isonzo begins (see March 17th).

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

16th - Erzerum taken by the Russian forces (see 12th, and March 12th, 1918).

18th - Mush (Armenia) taken by Russian forces (see August 15th).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

16th - War Office take over from the India Office control of operations in Mesopotamia.

WEST AFRICA

17th - Last German forces in South Cameroons cross border into Spanish territory for internment (see 18th).

18th - Mora, the last German post in the Cameroons, surrenders to the British.

18th - Conquest of the Cameroons by Entente forces completed (see March 3rd).

EAST AFRICA

19th - Major-General Tighe succeeded by Lieut.-General Smuts in command of British forces in East Africa (see April 16th, 1915, January 31st, 1916, and January 20th, 1917).

MERCHANT SHIPPING

16th - British Order in Council extends powers of Ship Licensing Committee to all voyages (see November 10th, 1915).

GREECE (plan - below)

16th - Remnants of Montenegrin army land at Corfu (see 13th).

17th - Chios occupied by British forces.

 

 Operations in the Aegean (Corbett, Vol 3, Map Case No.5)

MONDAY 21st FEBRUARY

BRITAIN

21st - Lieut.-General Sir H. C. Sclater, Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain, resigns (appointed April 9th, 1914) (see 22nd).

22nd Lieut.-General Sir C. F. N. Macready appointed Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain (see 21st, and August 30th, 1918).

ALBANIA

24th - Provisional Government of Essad Pasha leaves Durazzo (see 28th, and October 4th, 1914).

 

WESTERN FRONT

21st - Battle of Verdun begins (see 25th, and August 31st).

21st - Lieut.-General Sir C. F. N. Macready, Adjutant-General, British Expeditionary Force, France, resigns (see 22nd, and August 4th, 1914).

22nd - Lieut.-General Sir G. H. Fowke appointed Adjutant-General, British Expeditionary Force, France (see 21st).

25th - Fort Douaumont (Verdun) stormed by German forces (25th/26th). (see 21st).

AVIATION

21st - German airship " L.Z.-77 " brought down by French gunfire at Revigny (night 21st/22nd).

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

27th - Durazzo captured by Austrian forces (see December 20th, 1915, and October 2nd, 1918).

ITALIAN FRONT

Fifth Battle of the Isonzo continues.

EGYPT/WESTERN DESERT

26th - Senussi defeated by British forces in Action of Agagiya (Western Egypt) (see December 13th, 1915, and February 5th, 1917).

PERSIA

26th - Kirmanshah (Western Persia) occupied by Russian forces (see January 13th and July 1st).

 

CONTRABAND CONTROL

23rd - Ministry of Blockade formed in Great Britain. Lord Robert Cecil appointed Minister of Blockade (see July 18th, 1918).

MERCHANT SHIPPING

21st - German Government inform United States Government that defensively armed merchantmen will henceforth be regarded as cruisers (see 10th, 29th, and February 26th, 1917).

23rd - Portugal seizes German steamers in the Tagus (see March 9th).

MONDAY 28th FEBRUARY

ALBANIA

28th - Albanian Provisional Government of Essad Pasha set up at Naples (see 24th, and September 20th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

AVIATION

28th - The nucleus of a British air squadron formed to bomb German industrial centres (see June 5th, 1918).

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

ITALIAN FRONT

Fifth Battle of the Isonzo continues.

 

H.M.S. "Alcantara" in civilian service

CRUISER WARFARE

29th - Action in North Sea between German raider "Greif" and British auxiliary cruiser "Alcantara" (believed right - Photo Ships): both sunk.

U-BOAT WARFARE

29th - German Government send note to United States Government stating that it is not intended to postpone the extended submarine campaign (see 10th, 21st, and March 1st).

WEST AFRICA

29th - Blockade of the Cameroons raised (see 18th, and April 23rd, 1915).


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month -  61 ships of 134,000  tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

MARCH 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

WEDNESDAY 1st MARCH

DIPLOMACY

3rd - Agreement as to provisional administration of the Cameroons concluded between French and British Governments (see February 18th).

PERSIA

5th - Prince Firman Firma, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (see 6th, and December 25th, 1915). Mohtashim ed Douleh, Persian Foreign Minister, resigns (see 6th, and April 27th, 1915).

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

ITALIAN FRONT

Fifth Battle of the Isonzo continues.

CAUCASUS FRONT

2nd - Bitlis (Armenia) taken by Russian forces (see August 15th).

SUDAN

1st - Hostilities between Sudan Government and Sultan of Darfur begin (see 16th, and December 31st).

EAST AFRICA

5th - British advance on Kilimanjaro begins (see 10th and 21st).

CRUISER WARFARE

4th - German raider "Moewe" returns to Bremen (Germany) (see December 26th, 1915, and November 26th, 1916).

U-BOAT WARFARE

1st - German extended submarine campaign begins (see February 29th).

BLACK SEA

4th - Russian force landed at Atna for attack on Trebizond (see April 17th).

MONDAY 6th MARCH

DIPLOMACY

9th - Germany declares war on Portugal (see February 23rd).

UNITED STATES

6th - Mr. Baker appointed United States Secretary for War.

PERSIA

6th - Sipahsalar A'zam appointed Persian Prime Minister (see 5th, and August 29th). Sarim ed Douleh appointed Persian Foreign Minister (see 5th, and August 29th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

12th - Allied Military Conference held at Chantilly regarding a general summer offensive.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

ITALIAN FRONT

Fifth Battle of the Isonzo continues.

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

8th - Second attempt to relieve Kut: British relieving force repulsed at Dujaila Redoubt (see January 21st and April 1st).

PERSIA

12th - Karind (West Persia) occupied by a Russian force (later withdrawn).

EAST AFRICA

10th - Taveta taken by British forces (see 5th, and August 15th, 1914).

11th - Action of Latema Nek begins (see 5th, 10th, and 12th).

12th - Action of Latema Nek ends (see 11th).

 

MONDAY 13th MARCH

DIPLOMACY

15th - Austria-Hungary severs diplomatic relations with Portugal.

15th - Austria-Hungary declares war on Portugal.

FRANCE

16th - General Roques succeeds General Gallieni as French Minister for War (see October 30th, 1915, and March 17th, 1917).

PORTUGAL

15th - Dr. A. Jose d'Almeida succeeds Dr. A. A. da Costa as Portuguese Premier (see November 29th, 1915, and April 25th, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

18th - Battle of Lake Naroch (White Russia) begins (see April 30th).

ITALIAN FRONT

17th - Fifth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see February 15th).

 

EGYPT/WESTERN DESERT

14th - Sollum (Western Egypt) reoccupied by British forces (see November 23rd, 1915).

19th - General Sir A. J. Murray takes over command of the Force in Egypt from General Sir John Maxwell. (link to British despatch on operations from January to May 1916)

SUDAN

16th - Sudan force advances from Nahud into Darfur (see 1st, and May 22nd).

EAST AFRICA

13th - New Moshi taken by British forces (see 5th and 12th).

GERMAN NAVY

14th - Admiral von Tirpitz, German Minister of Marine, resigns (appointed in 1897) (see 15th).

15th - Admiral von Capelle appointed German Minister of Marine (see 14th, and August 13th, 1918).

 

MONDAY 20th MARCH

FRANCE

20th - M. Denys Cochin appointed French Under-Secretary of State for Blockade (see August 17th, 1917).

CHINA

22nd - Yuan-Shih-Kai relinquishes the throne of China (see December 11th, 1915, and June 6th, 1916).

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Lake Naroch (White Russia) continues.

 

EAST AFRICA

21st - Action of Kahe brings the Kilimanjaro operations to and end (see 5th). German forces retreat from Kilimanjaro area.

U-BOAT WARFARE

24th - S.S. "Sussex" (French) (below, with bow blown off  - Photo Ships) torpedoed by submarine in the English Channel (see April 18th).

MONDAY 27th MARCH

DIPLOMACY

28th - Inter-Allied Conference in Paris (26th/28th). Declaration of Unity between Belgium, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan. Portugal, Russia, and Serbia regarding military, economic, and diplomatic affairs, drawn up.

RUSSIA

29th - General Polivanov, Russian Minster for War resigns, and is succeeded by General Shuvaev (see June 26th, 1915 and January, 17th, 1917)

JAPAN

29th - Lieut.-General Oka, Japanese Minister for War, resigns (appointed 16th, 1914) (see 30th)

30th - Lieut.-General Kenichi Oshima appointed Japanese Minister for War (see 29th, and September 29th, 1918) 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

AVIATION

31st - German airship raid on England (east coast). Airship "L.-15" brought down by gunfire near mouth of the Thames.

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Lake Naroch (White Russia) continues.

 

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

30th - Russian hospital ship "Portugal" sunk by submarine in Black Sea.


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 69 ships of 165,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

APRIL 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

SATURDAY 1st APRIL

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

AVIATION

1st - End of period of German mastery of the air on the Western front (Approximate date.) (see October 1st, 1915).

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Lake Naroch (White Russia) continues.

 

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

1st - Third Attempt to relieve Kut begins (see 5th, and March 8th).

 

 

MONDAY 3rd APRIL

DIPLOMACY

3rd - Greek Government refuse overland route for transport of Serbian army from Corfu to Salonika (see 15th, and February 10th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Lake Naroch (White Russia) continues.

4th - General Brusilov appointed to command Russian Southern Armies (see June 4th).

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

6th - Russian attack on Trebizond begins (see 17th, and landing on March 4th).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

5th - Action of Falahiya (see 1st and 6th).

6th - First attack on Sanna-i-Yat (see 5th and 9th).

9th - Second attack on Sanna-i-Yat (see 6th and 22nd).

 

MONDAY 10th APRIL

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Lake Naroch (White Russia) continues.

EAST AFRICA

11th - Kionga (German East Africa) occupied by Portuguese forces.

 

NAVAL AVIATION

14th - Constantinople and Adrianople attacked by aeroplanes of the Royal Naval Air Service from Mudros.

GREECE

15th - Serbian Army Headquarters land at Salonika from Corfu (see 3rd).

MONDAY 17th APRIL

DIPLOMACY

17th - Italian Government issue decrees prohibiting trading with Germany (see March 1st, 1915).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Lake Naroch (White Russia) continues.

 

BALKANS

19th - Field-Marshal von der Goltz (see December 10th, 1914, and November 24th, 1915) assassinated by an Albanian officer.

CAUCASUS FRONT

17th - Trebizond (Asia Minor) taken by Russian forces (see 6th, and February 24th, 1918).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

18th - Action of Bait Aissa (Mesopotamia) (17th/18th).

22nd - Third attack on Sanna-i-Yat repulsed (see 9th, 24th and 29th).

EAST AFRICA

17th - British attack on Kondoa Irangi (German East Africa) begins (see 19th).

19th - Kondoa Irangi taken by British forces (see 17th, and June 9th).

ALLIED TROOP MOVEMENTS

20th - Russian troops from the Far East arrive at Marseilles (see July 30th).

U-BOAT WARFARE

18th - United States Government send note to German Government on "Sussex" case (see March 24th) and submarine policy in general (see February 10th).

IRELAND

20th - Disguised German transport "Aud" sinks herself after capture while trying to land arms on Irish coast. Roger Casement lands in Ireland from a German submarine and is arrested (see 24th, and August 3rd).

MONDAY 24th APRIL

DIPLOMACY

26th - Agreement signed at Berlin for transfer of British and German wounded and sick prisoners of war to Switzerland (see May 13th).

26th - French and Russian Governments conclude "Sykes-Picot" agreement for eventual partition of Asia Minor (see May 9th and May 23rd).

29th - "Havre Declaration" signed by France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, and Russia guaranteeing integrity of Belgian Congo.

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

IRISH REBELLION

24th - Outbreak of Rebellion in Ireland (see May 1st).

27th - Martial law proclaimed in Dublin and the county (see 24th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

Battle of Lake Naroch (White Russia) continues.

30th - Battle of Lake Naroch ends (see March 18th).

 

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

29th - Capitulation of Kut (plan below) (see 22nd, May 19th, 1916, and December 7th, 1915).

 

H.M.S. Russell

 

 

Sketch Map of the Tigris, Kut-al-Amarah to Sheikh Saad

 

MINE WARFARE

27th - H.M.S. "Russell" (left - Photo Ships) sunk by mine in the Mediterranean.

BRITISH COASTAL RAID

25th - Lowestoft (Suffolk) and Yarmouth (Norfolk) raided by German battle cruiser squadron (see November 26th).

BELGIAN COAST

24th - Laying of Belgian coast barrage commenced by British navy. (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties.)

MESOPOTAMIA (plan - left)

24th - Final attempt to succour Kut: loss of H.M.S. "Julnar" (see 29th). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 92 ships of 193,000  tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

MAY 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

MONDAY 1st MAY

SERBIA

7th - Serbian Government set up at Salonika (see February 9th, 1916, and December 9th, 1918).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

IRISH REBELLION

1st - Collapse of Irish Rebellion—leaders surrender (see 3rd, and April 24th).

3rd - Three Irish rebel leaders executed (see 1st).

AVIATION

3rd - German airship "L.-20," returning from raid on Scotland, wrecked at Stavanger (Norway).

4th - German airship "L.-7" destroyed off the Slesvig coast.

EASTERN FRONT

 

AVIATION

5th - German airship "L.Z.-85" brought down by British gunfire at Salonika.

 

PERSIA

7th - Qasr-i-Shirin (Western Persia) occupied by Russian forces (see December 15th, 1915, June 20th, 1916, and March 25th, 1917).

 

 

MONDAY 8th MAY

DIPLOMACY

9th - British and French Governments conclude " Sykes-Picot " agreement as to eventual partition of Asia Minor (see April 26th and May 23rd).

10th - Agreement signed at Berlin re employment of British and German prisoners of war (see 29th).

13th - Agreement signed at London for transfer of British and German wounded and sick prisoners of war to Switzerland (see April 26th, 1916, and July 2nd and September 11th, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

9th - Lieut.-General Sir George Milne succeeds Lieut.-General Sir Bryan Mahon as General Officer Commanding British Forces, Salonika (see October 28th, 1915).

ITALIAN FRONT

14th - Austrian offensive in the Trentino begins (see June 3rd).

 

PERSIA

11th - Kwash (East Persia) occupied by British forces.

 

 

MONDAY 15th MAY

DIPLOMACY

16th - Agreement concluded between Great Britain and France regarding respective claims in Turkish territories (see August 18th, 1917).

BRITAIN

16th - Second Military Service Bill extending compulsion to married men passes the British House of Commons (see 25th and February 10th).

17th - Air Board formed in Great Britain (see January 3rd, 1918).

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

ITALIAN FRONT

Austrian offensive in the Trentino continues

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

15th - Rowanduz (Northern Mesopotamia) occupied by Russian forces.

15th - Khanaqin (North-East of Baghdad) taken by Russian forces (see June 5th).

18th - Detachment of Cossacks from Russian force in West Persia effects junction with British army on the Tigris.

19th - Turkish Army evacuates the As Sinn position and withdraws to Kut (see April 29th and December 13th).

ARABIA

15th - Allied blockade of the Hejaz coast to assist revolt of Sherif of Mecca commenced (see June 7th).

 

MONDAY 22nd MAY

DIPLOMACY

23rd - British Government notify Russian Government of their recognition of Franco-Russian "Sykes-Picot" agreement as to eventual partition of Asia Minor (see April 26th, May 9th, and September 1st).

BRITAIN

25th - Second Military Service Act becomes law in Great Britain (see 16th, and June 8th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

26th - Fort Rupel (Greek frontier of Macedonia) occupied by Bulgarian and German forces (see 31st).

ITALIAN FRONT

Austrian offensive in the Trentino continues.

CAUCASUS FRONT

24th - Mamakhatun (Armenia) taken by Russian forces (see 31st).

SUDAN

22nd - Sultan of Darfur defeated by Sudan force in affair of Beringiya (Darfur) (see 23rd, March 16th and November 6th).

23rd - El Fasher (capital of Darfur) occupied by Sudan force (see 22nd).

EAST AFRICA

25th - British advance from Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland across the frontier into German East Africa begins (see 27th).

27th - Neu Langenburg (German East Africa] occupied by British forces (see 25th).

CONTRABAND CONTROL

26th - United States Government send Note to British Government protesting against search of mails.

 

MONDAY 29th MAY

DIPLOMACY

29th - Agreement signed at London re the employment of British and German prisoners of war (see 10th).

31st - Entente Governments protest to Greece against Bulgarian occupation of Fort Rupel (see 26th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

ITALIAN FRONT

Austrian offensive in the Trentino continues.

CAUCASUS FRONT

31st - Mamakhatun retaken by Turkish forces (see 24th).

 


Battle of Jutland - Opening Movements

 

NORTH SEA

31st – Battle of Jutland begins (see June 1st). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

NAVAL AVIATION

31st - First British aerial co-operation with fleet in action.


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 64 ships of   127,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

JUNE 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

THURSDAY 1st JUNE

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

2nd - Battle of Mount Sorrel (Ypres) begins (see 13th).

2nd - Fort Vaux (Verdun) stormed by German forces (German date. The French claim a foothold till the 7th.) (see November 1st).

 

EASTERN FRONT

4th - Russian offensive ("Brusilov's Offensive") begins. The first phase of this offensive is known to the Germans as the "Battle of Wosuzka-Sereth." (see 11th, and August 17th).

BALKAN FRONT

3rd - Allied Commander proclaims martial law in city of Salonika (see October 3rd, 1915).

ITALIAN FRONT

3rd - End of the main Austrian offensive in the Trentino (see 16th, and May 14th).

H.M.S. "Black Prince"

 

S.M.S. "Rostock" (both CyberHeritage)

NORTH SEA

1st – Battle of Jutland ends (see May 31st). Battleships and cruisers sunk:

BRITISH

"Indefatigable"

"Invincible"

"Queen Mary"

"Black Prince" (left)

"Defence"

"Warrior"

GERMAN

"Pommern"

"Luetzow"

"Elbing"

"Frauenlob"

"Rostock" (left)

"Wiesbaden"

(link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

 

MONDAY 5th JUNE

BRITAIN

8th - Second Compulsory Service Act comes into operation in Great Britain (see May 25th and April 10th, 1918).

ITALY

11th - Signor Salandra, Italian Premier, resigns (see 15th, and May 16th, 1915).

ARABIA

7th - Sherif of Mecca issues proclamation denouncing the Committee of Union and Progress and proclaiming the Independence of the Hejaz (see 5th, and October 29th).

CHINA

6th - Yuan-Shih-Kai, President of China, dies (date of election October 6th, 1913). Li-Yuan-Hung elected President (see March 22nd, 1916, and July 6th, 1917).

NEW ZEALAND

10th - Compulsory Service Bill passed in New Zealand (see September 1st).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battle of Mount Sorrel (Ypres).

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues.

11th - Battle of the Strypa begins (see 30th).

ITALIAN FRONT

4th – Local counter-attacks on the Trentino front

H.M.S. "Hampshire" (Photo Ships)

 

ARABIA

5th - Sherif of Mecca begins revolt against Turkish rule (see 7th, 9th, and October 24th, 1915).

6th - Attack on Medina by revolting Arabs repulsed by Turkish garrison (see 5th).

9th - Jidda (Arabia) captured by Arab forces (see 5th).

10th - Turkish garrison of Mecca surrenders to the Sherif (see 5th).

PERSIA

5th - Turkish offensive into West Persia begins (Approximate date): Khanaqin evacuated by Russian forces (see May 15th).

EAST AFRICA

8th - Bismarckburg (German East Africa) taken by British forces (see May 25th).

9th - Action of Mkaramo (on Northern Railway in German East Africa). German attack on Kondoa Irangi (East Africa) begins (see 10th, and April 19th).

10th - German attack on Kondoa Irangi repulsed (see 9th).

MINE WARFARE

5th - H.M.S. "Hampshire" (left; plan - below) sunk by mine off Scottish coast. Field-Marshal Earl Kitchener and his Staff drowned (see August 6th, 1914).

 

Loss of the "Hampshire" (Newbolt, Vol 4, pp21)

 

GREECE

6th – "Pacific blockade" of Greece by Entente Powers begins (see 22nd).

 

MONDAY 12th JUNE

DIPLOMACY

14th - Allied Economic Conference reassembles in Paris (see 27th, and June 3rd, 1915).

ITALY

15th - Signor Boselli appointed Italian Prime Minister (see 11th, and October 25th, 1917).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

13th - Battle of Mount Sorrel (Ypres) ends (see 2nd).

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues incl Battle of the Strypa.

12th - Zaleszczyki (Galicia) taken by Russian forces (see July 30th, 1917).

17th - Czernowitz (Bukovina) reoccupied by Russian forces (see February 17th, 1915, and August 3rd, 1917).

ITALIAN FRONT

16th - Italian counter-offensive in the Trentino begins (see 3rd and July 7th).

PERSIA

12th - Kirman (Persia) occupied by British forces.

 

 

MONDAY 19th JUNE

DIPLOMACY

21st - Entente Governments send Note to Greece demanding demobilisation and change of Government. (Accepted.) (See 27th.)

GREECE

21st - Greek Cabinet (Skouloudhis) resign (see November 6th, 1915). M. Zaimis forms new Ministry (see September 11th).

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

23rd - Fort Thiaumont (Verdun) finally stormed by German forces. Bulk of position was captured on May 23rd, and this date marks the limit of the German advance on Verdun. (see 30th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues incl Battle of the Strypa.

21st - Radautz (Bukovina) taken by Russian forces.

24th - Austrian forces driven out of The Bukovina.

ITALIAN FRONT

Italian counter-offensive in the Trentino continues.

PERSIA

20th - Qasr-i-Shirin (West Persia) taken by Turkish forces (see May 7th, 1916, and March 25th, 1917).

EAST AFRICA

19th - Handeni (German East Africa) occupied by British forces.

 

GREECE

22nd - "Pacific blockade" of Greece suspended (see 6th).

 

MONDAY 26th JUNE

DIPLOMACY

27th - Recommendations of Allied Economic Conference ratified (see 14th).

GREECE

27th - Greek Government order general demobilisation (see 21st).

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

30th - Fort Thiaumont (Verdun) retaken by French forces (see 23rd, and July 1st).

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues:

30th - Battle of the Strypa ends (see 11th).

ITALIAN FRONT

Italian counter-offensive in the Trentino continues

 

June 1916 to April 1917 - Diagram showing the Progress of the Submarine Campaign in the Various Theatres of Operations (Newbolt, Vol 4, pp382)

CONTRABAND CONTROL

30th - British Government conclude further agreement with the Netherlands Overseas Trust for rationing of Holland (see November 23rd, 1915).


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 68 ships of  109,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses) (see Diagram - left)

 

JULY 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

SATURDAY 1st JULY

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Verdun continues.

1st - Battles of the Somme, 1916, begin with Battle of Albert, 1916 (1st/13th) (see November 18th).

AVIATION

1st - Contact patrol, or liaison with infantry, first instituted in the Royal Flying Corps.

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues:

2nd - Battle of Baranovichi begins (see 9th).

ITALIAN FRONT

Italian counter-offensive in the Trentino continues

PERSIA

1st - Kirmanshah reoccupied by Turkish forces (see February 26th, 1916, and March 11th, 1917).

 

 

 

MONDAY 3rd JULY

DIPLOMACY

3rd - Russian and Japanese Governments conclude treaty with regard to future policy in the Far East.

BRITAIN

7th - Mr. Lloyd George succeeds Lord Kitchener as Secretary of State for War, Great Britain (see June 5th and December 11th).

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues:

9th - Battle of Baranovichi ends (see 2nd).

ITALIAN FRONT

7th - Italian counter-offensive in the Trentino ends (see June 16th).

 

EAST AFRICA

7th - Tanga (German East Africa) occupied by British forces (see November 5th, 1914).

 

LAWS OF NAVAL WAR

7th - British Government issue Order in Council rescinding Declaration of London of 1909. French Government issue similar order (see October 29th, 1914, and November 6th, 1914).

 

MONDAY 10th JULY

DIPLOMACY

14th - Inter-Allied Conference, on finance held in London (14th/15th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

14th - Battle of Bazentin Bidge (Somme) begins (see 17th).

15th - Battle of Delville Wood (Somme) begins (see September 3rd).

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues

CAUCASUS FRONT

12th - Mamakhatun (Armenia) again taken by Russian forces (see May 31st).

EAST AFRICA

14th - Mwanza, on Victoria Nyanza (German East Africa) taken by British forces. (link to British despatch)

 

S.M.S. "U.155", ex-"Deutschland" (Photo Ships)

CONTRABAND CONTROL

10th - German commercial submarine "Deutschland" (below, in later naval service) arrives at Norfolk (Va.), from Bremen (set August 23rd).

U-BOAT WARFARE

10th - Russian hospital ship "Vpered" sunk by submarine in the Black Sea.

BRITISH COASTAL RAID

11th - Seaham harbour (on coast of Durham) shelled by German submarine.

MONDAY 17th JULY

DIPLOMACY

18th - Treaty with Ibn Sa'ud, Emir of Nejd, ratified by British Government (see December 26th, 1915).

20th - Greek Government conclude new loan with the Entente (800,000) ( see November 8th, 1915)

RUSSIA

22nd - M. Sazonov, Russian Foreign Minister, resigns (appointed in 1910) and is succeeded by M. Sturmer (see February 1st and November 24th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

17th - Battle of Bazentin Ridge (Somme) ends (see 14th).

23rd - Battle of Pozieres Ridge (Somme) begins (see September 3rd).

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues

PALESTINE FRONT

19th - Turkish offensive from Oghratina against the Suez Canal begins (see August 4th).

 

 

MONDAY 24th JULY

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

AVIATION

30th - First aerial operations carried out, by combined French and British air services on French Western front.

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues

BALKAN FRONT

25th - Reconstituted Serbian army comes into action on Salonika front (see April 15th).

 

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

25th - Erzinjan (Armenia) captured by Russian forces. (This was the furthest point west reached by Russian forces. It was evacuated subsequently without further fighting.)

ARABIA

27th - Yenbo, port of Medina, surrenders to Arab forces (see June 5th).

 

S.S. "Brussels" (Photo Ships)

CONTRABAND CONTROL

28th - United States Government formally protest to British Government against " Black List " policy (see October 22nd, 1914, December 23rd, 1915, and January 26th, 1916).

29th - German Government send Note to United States Government rejecting British offer to permit passage of foodstuffs to Poland from United States of America.

ALLIED TROOP MOVEMENTS

30th - Russian troops from France land at Salonika and join Allied force (see April 20th).

U-BOAT WARFARE

27th - Captain Fryatt, of British S.S. "Brussels," (left) shot by order of a German court-martial in Belgium.

MONDAY 31st JULY

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues

EAST AFRICA

31st - Kilimatinde (German East Africa) taken by British forces.

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 98 ships of   111,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

AUGUST 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

TUESDAY 1st AUGUST

IRELAND

3rd - Roger Casement executed (see April 20th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues

BALKAN FRONT

2nd – Battle of Doiran (South Serbia) begins

ITALIAN FRONT

6th - Battle of Gorizia (6th Battle of the Isonzo) begins (see 17th).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

4th - Battle of Rumani (Sinai) (4th/5th) (see July 19th).

EAST AFRICA

3rd - Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika (German East Africa), occupied by Belgian forces.

5th - Advance of main body of British force in East Africa through the Nguru Hills begins (see 11th).

ITALIAN NAVY

2nd - Italian Dreadnought "Leonardo da Vinci" (below - Photo Ships) sunk by internal explosion in harbour at Taranto.

 

MONDAY 7th AUGUST

PORTUGAL

8th - Portuguese Government decide to extend military co-operation to Europe, (see November 23rd, 1914, December 4th, 1914, and January 3rd, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

 

EASTERN FRONT

"Brusilov's Offensive" continues.

10th - Stanislau again taken by Russian forces (see June 8th, 1915, and July 24th, 1917).

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of Doiran (South Serbia) continues.

ITALIAN FRONT

6th Battle of the Isonzo continues.

9th - Gorizia taken by Italian forces (see 6th).

PERSIA

10th - Hamadan (Western Persia) taken by Turkish forces (Approximate date.) (see December 14th, 1916, and March 2nd, 1917).

EAST AFRICA

11th - Mpwapwa (German East Africa) occupied by British forces (see 5th).

 

ALLIED TROOP MOVEMENTS

12th - Italian troops land at Salonika and join Allied force (see October 3rd, 1915, and July 30th, 1916).

 

MONDAY 14th AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

17th - Rumanian Government conclude agreement with Entente Powers regarding intervention (see 27th, and January 22nd).

17th - Military convention signed at Bukharest between Entente Powers and Rumania.

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

 

EASTERN FRONT

17th - End of "Brusilov's Offensive" (Approximate date.) (see June 4th).

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of Doiran (South Serbia) continues

17th - Battle of Florina (Macedonia) begins (see 19th).

19th - Battle of Florina (German name and dates) ends (see 17th).

ITALIAN FRONT

6th Battle of the Isonzo continues

17th - Battle of Gorizia (6th Battle of the Isonzo) ends (see 6th).

CAUCASUS FRONT

15th - Mush and Bitlis (Armenia) reoccupied by Turkish forces (see 24th, February 18th and March 2nd).

 

Bagamoyo: Sketch Showing the Landing Operations

U-BOAT WARFARE

19th - H.M.S. "Falmouth" (below - CyberHeritage/Terry Phillips) and "Nottingham" sunk by submarine in North Sea.

 

EAST AFRICA

15th - Bagamoyo (German East African coast) (plan - left) occupied by British forces. (link to part of British despatch)

MONDAY 21st AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

24th - Anglo-French Conference on finance held at Calais.

27th - Rumanian Government order mobilisation, and declare war on Austria-Hungary (see 17th and 28th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battle of Verdun.

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

25th - Russian forces cross the Danube into the Dobrudja to assist the Rumanian forces (see 17th, 27th, and September 2nd).

BALKAN FRONT

21st - Battle of Doiran (South Serbia) ends

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

23rd - Battle of Payat (Armenia).

24th - Bitlis and Mush (Armenia) again taken by Russian forces (see 15th, and April 30th, 1917).

EAST AFRICA

22nd - Kilosa (German East Africa) taken by British forces.

26th - Morogoro (German East Africa) taken by British forces.

CONTRABAND CONTROL

23rd - German commercial submarine "Deutschland" returns to Germany (see July 10th).

 

MONDAY 28th AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

28th - Germany declares war on Rumania (see 27th).

28th - Italy declares war on Germany (see May 24th, 1915).

30th - Turkey declares war on Rumania (see 28th).

30th - Rumania severs diplomatic relations with Bulgaria (see September 1st).

GERMANY

29th - Field-Marshal von Hindenburg succeeds General von Falkenhayn as Chief of the General Staff of the German Field Armies (see September 14th and November 27th, 1914), with General von Ludendorff as Chief Quartermaster-General (see October 27th, 1918).

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916 continue.

31st - Battle of Verdun ends. This is the French date for the close of ''The Defensive Battle of Verdun." The German list carries the battle up to September 9th. (see February 21st).

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

28th - Rumanian forces cross Hungarian frontier and invade Transylvania (see 27th).

29th - Brasov (Transylvania) occupied by Rumanian forces (see 28th, and October 7th).

BALKAN FRONT

30th - Venizelist revolt in Salonika (see September 25th and October 9th).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

28th - General Sir Stanley Maude succeeds Lieut.-General Sir Percy Lake as Commander-in-Chief, Mesopotamia (see January 19th, and November 18th, 1917).

EAST AFRICA

29th - Iringa (German East Africa) taken by British forces.

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 144 ships of  166,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

SEPTEMBER 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

FRIDAY 1st SEPTEMBER

DIPLOMACY

1st - Bulgaria declares war on Rumania (see August 30th).

1st - Russian and British Governments conclude " Sykes-Picot " agreement as to eventual partition of Asia Minor (see April 26th, and May 9th and 23rd).

NEW ZEALAND

1st - Compulsory Military Service Bill in New Zealand comes into operation (see June 10th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916 continue:

3rd - Battle of Guillemont (Somme) begins (see 6th).

3rd - Battles of Delville Wood and Pozieres (Somme) end (see July 15th and 23rd).

AVIATION

2nd - German raid by fourteen airships (greatest number to attack simultaneously) on London and other parts of England. Airship " S.L.-11 " destroyed by aeroplane at Cuffley (night 2nd/3rd).

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

1st - Sibiu (Transylvania) taken by Rumanian forces (see 26th).

2nd - German and Bulgarian forces invade the Dobrudja (see August 25th, 1916, January 6th, 1917, and December 3rd, 1918).

 

 

GREECE

2nd - German ships in Piraeus harbour seized by the Allies.

 

MONDAY 4th SEPTEMBER

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916 continue:

6th - Battle of Guillemont (Somme) ends (see 3rd).

9th - Battle of Ginchy (Somme).

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

6th - Tutrakan (Dobrudja) taken by Bulgarian forces (see 2nd).

8th - Orsova (Hungary) occupied by Rumanian forces (see August 28th and November 22nd).

10th - Silistra (Dobrudja) taken by German and Bulgarian forces (see 2nd).

EAST AFRICA

4th - Dar es Salaam (German East Africa - plan, left) surrenders to British forces (see August 8th, 1914).

7th - British pursuit of retreating German force in East Africa checked at Affair of Kisaki

7th - Kilwa, on East African coast, occupied by British naval forces.

 

The Coast of East Africa

MONDAY 11th SEPTEMBER

GREECE

11th - M. Zaimis, Greek Premier, resigns (see 16th, and June 21st).

16th - M. Kalogeropoulos forms new Greek Ministry (see 11th, and October 3rd).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916 continue:

15th - Battle of Flers-Courcelette (Somme) begins (see 22nd). "Tanks" in action for the first time (see July 28th, 1917).

AVIATION

15th - Aeroplane co-operation with tanks instituted by the British Air Force.

EASTERN FRONT

 

ITALIAN FRONT

14th - Seventh Battle of the Isonzo begins (see 18th).

 

 

EAST AFRICA

17th - Lindi, on East African coast, occupied by British naval forces.

 

MONDAY 18th SEPTEMBER

ALBANIA

20th - Albanian Government of Essad Pasha set up in Salonika (see February 28th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916 continue:

22nd - Battle of Flers-Courcelette (Somme) ends (see 15th).

AVIATION

23rd - Airship raid on England (East Coast and London) involving serious casualties (170, mostly civilian); "L.-32" destroyed by aeroplane at Billericay ; "L.-33" brought down by gunfire in Essex (night 23rd/24th).

24th - Krupp works at Essen bombed by French aeroplanes.

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

18th - Greek IVth Army Corps at Kavala surrenders voluntarily to German forces.

ITALIAN FRONT

18th - Seventh Battle of the Isonzo ends (see 14th).

 

ARABIA

22nd - Turkish garrison of Taif (Hejaz) surrenders to Arab forces (see June 5th).

EAST AFRICA

19th - Tabora (capital of German East Africa) occupied by Belgian forces.

AEGEAN

19th - Allies commence blockade of Greek Macedonian coast from mouth of the Struma to mouth of the Mesta (see December 15th, 1915).

MONDAY 25th SEPTEMBER

GREECE

25th - M. Venizelos withdraws from Athens (see 29th, and August 30th).

29th - M. Venizelos and Admiral Condouriotis announce formation of Greek Provisional Government in Crete in opposition to the Government at Athens (see December 19th).

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916 continue:

25th - Battle of Morval (Somme) begins (see 28th).

26th - Battle of Thiepval Ridge (Somme) begins (see 28th).

28th - Battles of Morval and Thiepval Ridge end (see 25th and 26th).

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

26th - Battle of Sibiu (Transylvania) begins (see 29th).

29th - Battle of Sibiu ends: city retaken by Austrian forces (see 1st and 26th).

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 180 ships of   232,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)


 

26th - S.S. "Newby" (above) sunk by "U.35" in the Mediterranean

 

 

OCTOBER 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

SUNDAY 1st OCTOBER

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916 continue:

1st - Battle of the Transloy Ridges (Somme) begins (see 18th).

1st - Battle of the Ancre Heights (Somme) begins (sec November 11th).

AVIATION

1st - German airship "L.-31" destroyed by aeroplane at Potter's Bar, near London (night 1st/2nd).

EASTERN FRONT

 

 

 

MONDAY 2nd OCTOBER

GREECE

3rd - Greek Cabinet (Kalogeropoulos) resign (see 10th, and September 16th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916 continue.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

7th - Battle of Brasov (Transylvania) (7th/9th): city retaken by Austro-German forces (see August 29th).

BALKAN FRONT

5th - Battle of the Cerna and Monastir begins (see November 19th and December 11th). (plan - right)

 

 

The Balkans (Newbolt, Vol 4, pp100)

U-BOAT WARFARE

8th - German submarine "U.-53" (below - Photo Ships)  captures and destroys five ships outside Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.A.

MONDAY 9th OCTOBER

GREECE

9th - M. Venizelos arrives at Salonika (see August 30th, and September 25th and 29th)

10th - Professor Lambros forms new Greek Ministry (see 3rd, September 29th, 1916, and May 3rd, 1917).

 

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916, continue.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

14th - Transylvanian frontier of Rumania crossed by German forces (see August 28th and September 29th).

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

ITALIAN FRONT

9th - Eighth Battle of the Isonzo begins (see 12th).

12th - Eighth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see 9th).

 

GREEK NAVY

10th - Entente Governments send ultimatum to Greek Government demanding surrender of the Greek fleet  (below, including destroyer "Doxa" - Photo Ships) (see 11th).

 

11th - Greek Government accept Entente demands (see 10th).

U-BOAT WARFARE

13th - Norwegian Government issue orders prohibiting belligerent submarines from using Norwegian territorial waters (see February 1st, 1917).

 

MONDAY 16th OCTOBER

DIPLOMACY

20th - Anglo-French Conference held at Calais to discuss Greek participation in the war.

AUSTRIA

21st - Count Sturgkh, Austrian Premier, murdered (appointed Premier November 3rd, 1911) (see 28th).

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916, continue:

18th - Battle of the Transloy Ridges (Somme) ends (see 1st).

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

22nd - Constanza (Dobrudja) captured by German and Bulgarian forces.

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

 

EGYPT/WESTERN DESERT

17th - Affairs in the Dakhla Oasis (West Egypt) begin (see 22nd).

22nd - Affairs in the Dakhla Oasis end (see 17th).

 

RUSSIAN NAVY

20th - Russian battleship "Imperatritsa Mariya" (below - Photo Ships) destroyed by internal explosion at Sevastopol.

 

MONDAY 23rd OCTOBER

GERMANY

30th - Lieut.-General von Stein succeeds Lieut.-General Wild von Hohenborn as German Minister for War (see January 21st, 1915, and October 9th, 1918).

AUSTRIA

28th - Dr. E. von Korber appointed Austrian Premier (see 21st, and December 14th).

ARABIA

29th - Sherif of Mecca proclaimed "King of the Arabs" (see June 7th and November 4th).

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Somme, 1916, continue

24th - "First Offensive Battle" of Verdun (French name and date) begins (see December 18th). Fort Douaumont recaptured by French forces (see February 25th, August 31st, and November 1st).

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

25th - Cernavoda (Dobrudja) captured by Bulgarian forces (see 22nd).

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

 

 

The Dover Straits Barrage (Newbolt, Vol 4, pp54)

MINE WARFARE

28th - British hospital ship "Galeka" (see H.S. "Britannic" below) totally wrecked by mine off Havre.

STRAITS OF DOVER (plan - left)

26th - First German destroyer raid in Dover Straits (night 26th/27th) (see April 20th, 1917).

 

MONDAY 30th OCTOBER

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

"First Offensive Battle" of Verdun.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

ITALIAN FRONT

31st - Ninth Battle of the Isonzo begins (see November 4th).

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 201 ships of 352,000  tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

NOVEMBER 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

WEDNESDAY 1st NOVEMBER

DIPLOMACY

5th - Germany and Austria proclaim an "Independent State of Poland" (see April 3rd, 1915, and March 30th, 1917).

ARABIA

4th - Coronation of the "King of the Arabs" at Mecca (see October 29th and December 15th).

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battles of the Somme, 1916.

"First Offensive Battle" of Verdun:

1st - Fort Vaux (Verdun) recaptured by French forces (see June 2nd).

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

ITALIAN FRONT

4th - Ninth Battle of the Isonzo ends (see October 31st).

 

 

MONDAY 6th NOVEMBER

UNITED STATES

7th - Mr. Wilson re-elected President of the United States.

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battles of the Somme, 1916:

11th - Battle of the Ancre Heights (Somme) ends (see October 1st).

"First Offensive Battle" of Verdun.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

 

PERSIA

12th - Shiraz (South Persia) occupied by British forces.

SUDAN

6th - Affair of Gyuba (Darfur). Forces of Ali Dinar, ex-Sultan of Darfur, defeated by Sudan force. Ali Dinar killed (see May 22nd).

 

MONDAY 13th NOVEMBER

DIPLOMACY

15th - Inter-Allied Conference held in Paris to discuss: (a) the relations between Governments and Staffs; (b) policy and strategy; (c) Greece; (d) Poland. (Conference continued on 16th.)

19th - Entente Governments demand dismissal of Ministers of Central Powers at Athens and surrender of Greek military material (see December 1st).

WESTERN FRONT

"First Offensive Battle" of Verdun continues.

13th - Battle of the Ancre, 1916, begins (see 18th): Beaumont-Hamel stormed by British forces.

18th - Battle of the Ancre, 1916, ends (see 13th), and Battles of the Somme, 1916, end (see July 1st, 1916, March 14th and April 5th, 1917, and March 21st, 1918).

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

16th - Battle of Targa-Jiu, Rumania (16th/17th).

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

19th - Monastir (Serbia) captured by Allied forces (see October 5th, 1916, and December 2nd, 1915).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

15th - British advance into Sinai begins (see December 21st).

INDIA

15th - Third Affair of Hafiz Kor (North-West Frontier of India).

 

 

MONDAY 20th NOVEMBER

DIPLOMACY

23rd - Greek Provisional Government (M. Venizelos) at Salonika declare war on Germany and Bulgaria (see September 29th, 1916, and June 27th, 1917).

GERMANY

20th - Herr von Jagow, German Foreign Minister, resigns (appointed January 1913) (see 21st).

21st - Dr. Artur Zimmermann appointed German Foreign Minister (see 20th, and July 15th, 1917).

AUSTRIA

21st - Emperor Francis Joseph of Austria dies. Archduke Karl succeeds to the throne.

RUSSIA

24th - M. Sturmer, Russian Premier and Foreign Minister, resigns, and is succeeded by M. Trepov as Premier (see February 1st, July 22nd, and December 2nd and 12th, 1916, and January 8th, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

"First Offensive Battle" of Verdun continues.

AVIATION

25th - The German air forces established as a separate branch of the German army.

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

21st - Craiova (Rumania) taken by German forces.

22nd - Orsova (Hungary) taken by Austro-German forces (see September 8th).

23rd - Mackensen's army effects passage of the Danube at Islaz and Simnitza.

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

 

PALESTINE FRONT

British advance into Sinai continues

 

F.S. "Suffren" (Maritime Quest)

 

H.S. "Britannic" (with H.S. "Galeka" alongside - Photo Ships)

CRUISER WARFARE

22nd - German commerce raider "Seeadler" leaves Germany (approximate date.) (see August 2nd, 1917).

26th - German raider "Moewe" sails from Kiel on second cruise (see March 4th, 1916, and March 22nd, 1917).

U-BOAT WARFARE

26th - French battleship "Suffren" (left) sunk by submarine in the Bay of Biscay.

MINE WARFARE

21st - British hospital ship "Britannic" (left) sunk by mine in Aegean Sea.

23rd - British hospital ship "Braemar Castle" damaged and beached in Aegean Sea—probably mined.

BRITISH COASTAL RAID

26th - Second German naval raid on Lowestoft (see April 25th).

MONDAY 27th NOVEMBER

 

WESTERN FRONT

"First Offensive Battle" of Verdun continues.

AVIATION

27th - German airship raid on East coast of England: airship "L.-34" destroyed by aeroplane off Hartlepool, and "L.-21" destroyed by aeroplane off Yarmouth (night 27th/28th).

28th - First German daylight aeroplane raid on London (by single aeroplane) (see December 21st, 1914, and May 7th, June 13th and July 7th, 1917).

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

 

PALESTINE FRONT

British advance into Sinai continues

ROYAL NAVY

29th - Admiral Sir David Beatty appointed to succeed Admiral Sir John Jellicoe as Commander-in-Chief, Grand Fleet (see December 4th).

GREECE

30th - Allied forces landed at the Piraeus (see December 1st).


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 185 ships of  329,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

DECEMBER 1916

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

FRIDAY 1st DECEMBER

DIPLOMACY

1st - Greek Government refuse Entente demands (see November 19th).

2nd - Russian Premier (M. Trepov) announces that the Allies have acknowledged Russia's right to Constantinople and the Straits (see March 12th and April 12th, 1915).

BRITAIN

1st - Last meeting of War Committee of British Cabinet (see 9th, and November 3rd, 1915).

RUMANIA

1st - Rumanian Government removed from Bucharest to Jassy (see November 30th, 1918).

 

WESTERN FRONT

"First Offensive Battle" of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

RUMANIA

1st - Battle of the Arges (Rumania) begins (see 5th).

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

GREECE

1st - Allied forces withdrawn from Athens and the Piraeus after conflicts with Greeks (see November 30th, 1916, and January 24th, 1917).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

British advance into Sinai continues

MERCHANT SHIPPING

3rd - British and French Governments conclude agreement (the "Clementel Agreement"): (1) to unite British ships in French service to those already employed ; (2) to co-ordinate Allied tonnage ; (3) to create inter-allied bureau to centralise charter of neutral shipping (see January 6th, November 3rd, and December 3rd, 1917).

ROYAL NAVY

3rd - Admiral Sir Henry Jackson, First Sea Lord, Great Britain, resigns (see 4th, and May 28th, 1915).

CRUISER WARFARE

1st - German commerce raider "Wolff" leaves Germany (approximate date.) (see February 24th, 1918).

U-BOAT WARFARE

3rd - Funchal (Madeira) bombarded by German submarine (see December 12th, 1917).

MONDAY 4th DECEMBER

BRITAIN

4th - Mr. Asquith, British Premier, resigns (appointed April 8th, 1908). (see 7th).

7th - Mr. Lloyd George succeeds Mr. Asquith as British Premier (see 4th).

9th - War Cabinet formed in Great Britain. (The War Committee (see November 3rd, 1915) which held their last meeting on December 1st ceased to function on the formation of the War Cabinet which undertook the duties of the War Committee.) First Meeting held (see 1st)

 

WESTERN FRONT

"First Offensive Battle" of Verdun continues.

 

EASTERN FRONT

8th - Murman Railway (from Murmansk to Petrograd) declared open.

RUMANIA (plan - right)

5th - Battle of the Arges (Roumania) ends (see 1st).

6th - Bukharest  capitulates to the German forces (see November 30th, 1918).

BALKAN FRONT

Battle of the Cerna and Monastir continues.

GREECE

6th - Massacre of Venizelists in Athens (see 1st, and November 23rd).

PALESTINE FRONT

British advance into Sinai continues

 

The Navy in Roumania

ROYAL NAVY

4th - Admiral Sir John Jellicoe appointed First Sea Lord, Great Britain (see 3rd, August 4th, 1914, November 29th, 1916 and December 20th, 1917).

GREECE

7th - Entente Governments announce forthcoming blockade of Greece from December 8th (see 1st).

8th - Entente Powers begin blockade of Greece (see 7th).

 

MONDAY 11th DECEMBER

DIPLOMACY

11th - Allied Note presented to Greece demanding complete demobilization (see 1st and 14th).

12th - Identical Notes presented by Austro-Hungarian, Bulgarian, German, and Turkish Governments to United States Ambassadors in their respective countries requesting them to inform the Governments of the Entente Powers that the four Allied Central Powers are ready to negotiate for peace (see 30th).

14th - Entente Powers send Ultimatum to Greece; withdrawal of entire Greek Armies from Thessaly demanded (see 11th and 15th).

15th - Greek Government accept Allied Ultimatum (see 14th).

15th - British Government recognise the "King of the Arabs" as the King of the Hejaz (see November 4th).

BRITAIN

11th - Mr. Lloyd George's Coalition Ministry formed in Great Britain (see 7th, and May 25th, 1915). Lord Derby appointed Secretary of State for War, Great Britain, in succession to Mr. Lloyd George (see September 30th, 1915, and July 7th and April 20th, 1918). Viscount Grey, British Secretary for Foreign Affairs, resigns (appointed December 11th, 1905). Mr. Arthur Balfour, First Lord of the Admiralty, resigns, and is appointed Secretary for Foreign Affairs (see 12th, and May 28th, 1915). Ministry of Labour formed in Great Britain.

FRANCE

12th - Reorganisation of French Government. M. Briand remains Premier. New War Cabinet of five Ministers formed. General Joffre (see December 3rd, 1915) becomes Technical Military Adviser to the War Cabinet.

AUSTRIA

14th - Dr. von Korber, Austrian Premier, resigns (see 21st, and October 28th).

GREECE

17th - Greek Government issue warrant for arrest of M. Venizelos on charge of high treason (see August 30th and September 29th, 1916, and June 26th, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

"First Offensive Battle" of Verdun continues.

12th - General Nivelle becomes Commander-in-Chief of French Northern and North-Eastern Groups of Armies (see May 15th, 1917).

EASTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

11th - Battle of the Cerna and Monastir ends (see October 5th).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

British advance into Sinai continues

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

13th - British operations for the capture of Kut begin (see May 19th, 1916 and January 9th, 1917).

 

ROYAL NAVY

11th - Mr. Arthur Balfour, First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain, resigns.

12th - Sir Edward Carson succeeds Mr. Balfour as First Lord of the Admiralty, Great Britain (see 11th, and July 19th, 1917).

MINE WARFARE

11th - Italian battleship "Regina Margherita" (below - Photo Ships) sunk on Italian minefield.

 

MONDAY 18th DECEMBER

DIPLOMACY

18th - President Wilson issues Circular Note suggesting negotiations for peace (see 26th).

19th - British Government decide to recognise Government of M. Venizelos (see September 29th).

BRITAIN

19th - British Government decide to institute National Service (see November 1st, 1917).

19th - British Government decide to initiate Imperial Conference (see March 20th, 1917).

22nd - Ministry of Food formed in Great Britain (see 26th). Ministry of Pensions formed in Great Britain.

AUSTRIA

21st - Count Heinrich Clam-Martinitz appointed Austrian Premier (see 14th, and June 18th, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

18th - "First Offensive Battle" of Verdun ends (see October 24th, 1916, and August 20th, 1917).

 

EASTERN FRONT

 

PALESTINE FRONT

21st - El Arish (Sinai) occupied by British forces (see November 15th).

23rd - Affair of Magdhaba (Sinai).

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

22nd - Ministry of Shipping formed in Great Britain (see January 27th).

 

MONDAY 25TH DECEMBER

DIPLOMACY

26th - Anglo-French Conference meets in London to discuss the German and United States "Peace Notes"; also the situation in Greece, the Salonika expedition, and the division of the front in the Western Theatre. (Discussion continued on the 27th and 28th.)

26th - German, Austro-Hungarian and Turkish Governments send reply to President Wilson's Note; immediate meeting of delegates suggested (see 18th, and January 10th, 1917).

30th - Entente Governments reject German peace proposals (see 12th, and January 11th, 1917).

30th - Bulgarian Government reply accepting President Wilson's Note (see 18th, and January 10th, 1917).

FRANCE

26th - General Joffre created Marshal of France (see 12th).

RUSSIA

31st - Rasputin murdered in Petrograd.

WESTERN FRONT

30th - British and Chinese Governments conclude agreement for employment of Chinese labour in France.

EASTERN FRONT

 

SUDAN

31st - Campaign of the Sudan forces in Darfur comes to an end (see March 1st).

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

27th - French battleship "Gaulois" (below - Photo Ships) sunk by submarine in the Mediterranean.

 

 


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 207 ships of 357,000 tons gross. Total for 1916 – 1,410 ships of 2,367,000 tons gross  (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

 
 

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