Destroyer ordered from J. S. White at Cowes in October 1935 under the 1935
Build Programme. The ship was laid down on 6th
January 1936 and launched on 17th December 1936 as the 7th RN warship to carry the name, introduced in 1747 for
a French Prize. It was previously used for a cruiser sunk at Zeebrugge in 1918. Build was completed on 29th July
1937 and cost £258,965 which excluded Admiralty supplied items such as weapons and communications
equipment. Following a successful WARSHIP WEEK National Savings campaign in March 1942 she was adopted by
the civil community of Uxbridge, then in the county of Middlesex. This Class of destroyer was designed for
use as minelayers. See BRITISH DESTROYERS by E. March and Naval Staff (MINING) for more information.
B a t t
l e H o n o u r s
MINORCA 1756 - AIX 1758 - LAGOS 1759 - QUIBERON 1759 - HAVANA 1762 - MARTINIQUE 1780
- CHESAPEAKE 1781 - ST KITTS 1782 - TOULON 1793 - MARTINIQUE 1809 - ZEEBRUGGE 1918
- ATLANTIC 1939-41 - DUNKIRK 1940 - NORWAY
1941-42 - BISMARCK Action
1941 - ARCTIC 1941-43 - MALTA CONVOYS
1942 - SICILY 1943 - SALERNO 1943 - AEGEAN 1943
r a l
d i c D a t a
On a Field Red, a Lion Statant affronte Gold.
M o t t
Cela va sans dire: 'That goes without saying ‘
D e t a
i l s o f W a r
S e r v i c e
(for more ship information,
Naval History Homepage
and type name in Site Search)
1 9 3 9
Serving with 3rd Destroyer Flotilla, Mediterranean Fleet.
3rd On passage to Malta from Gibraltar.
11th Transferred to Western Approaches for duty with Anti-submarine
17th Deployed as part of escort for HM Aircraft Carrier COURAGEOUS.
Detached for search for U-Boat reported by
Returned to scene of sinking of HMS COURAGEOUS
18th Took part in rescue of survivors.
Deployment in SW Approaches for Anti-submarine duties in continuation.
14th Participated in sinking of U45 SW of Ireland in position 50.58N
12.67W with HM Destroyers
INGLEFIELD, ICARUS and IVANHOE.
21st Joined 5th Destroyer Flotilla in Home Fleet to provide A/S defence
during move of major ships
of Home Fleet from Scapa Flow to Loch Ewe after
the sinking of HM Battleship ROYAL OAK
by U-Boat torpedo on 14th October.
Nominated for transfer to 20th Destroyer Flotilla on formation for minelaying in
14th Taken in hand for refit and conversion to minelaying role at
13th Joined Flotilla after trials with minelaying equipment in the
17th Carried out first minelaying task in Ems Estuary with HM Destroyer
30th Deployed with HMS IVANHOE for first minelay of East Coast Barrier.
(For details of naval activities during 1939 see
ENGAGE THE ENEMY MORE CLOSELY
by Corelli Barnett).
1 9 4 0
Deployed for minelaying operations in Heligoland Bight with HMS IVANHOE.
2nd Operation EW.
10th Operation ID1.
13th Operation ID2.
14th Redeployed with Home Fleet for anti-submarine duties in Moray Firth
Home Fleet screening and anti-submarine duties in continuation.
14th Searched for German tanker ALTMARK with HM Cruiser ARETHUSA, HMS
TRIBAL 4th Destroyer Flotilla.
15th In company with HMS IVANHOE intercepted ALTMARK which entered
the intervention of Norwegian patrol craft.
Prevented from entry by Norwegian naval ships.
(Note: British personnel captured from
mercantiles sunk by commerce raiders were rescued by
a Boarding Party from HM Destroyer COSSACK)
16th Sighted German tanker BALDUR which promptly scuttled.
18 of crew taken from lifeboat and made POW.
17th Landed prisoners at
18th Deployed with ships of Flotilla for A/S patrol in North Sea.
Home Fleet deployment with Flotilla in continuation.
17th Damaged in collision with trawler OCEAN DRIFT which sank.
18th Under temporary repairs at Invergordon.
Taken in hand for repair at Middlesbrough
April Under repair.
27th Rejoined Home Fleet and nominated for minelay off Norway (Operation
Mine rails to be converted to Narrow Gauge at
30th During passage to Scapa Flow Operation ZMB cancelled
Minelay duties with Flotilla in continuation.
6th Rejoined Home Fleet with Broad Gauge mine rails fitted.
9th Norway minelaying operations cancelled because of lack of air
Diverted on passage to Immingham to lay
minefield in Heligoland Bight with H M Destroyers
ESK and EXPRESS (Operation ZMC).
10th Operation ZMC executed.
On completion escorted PRINCESS VICTORIA for
minelaying off Dutch coast
11th Returned to Immingham and embarked mines for continuation of minelay
in East Coast Barrier
in BS Series Operations with HMS ESK and HMS
12th Operation BS3.
14th Operation BS4.
15th Diverted to lay additional field off Dutch coast with HM Destroyer
16th Completed minelay alone after HMS IMPULSIVE had to return with
17th Resumed Operations in BS Series with rest of Flotilla.
Escorted PRINCESS VICTORIA during lay and
returned independently to Humber.
(Note: Did not take part in rescue work when HMS
PRINCESS VICTORIA sank after
detonating a mine.)
21st Continued East Coast Barrier minelays with Flotilla.
Operation BS6 completed.
23rd Operation BS7.
25th Operation BS8.
27th Operation BS9.
28th Re-deployed for duty at Dover to assist with evacuation at Dunkirk
and support against fire
(Operation DYNAMO - For details see Naval Staff
29th Rescued survivors from ss MONA'S QUEEN on passage to beaches.
Embarked 661 troops from pier at Dunkirk and
took passage to Dover.
30th Damaged in air attack at Dunkirk with some casualties.
Landed wounded at Dover.
2nd Taken in hand for repair at Middlesbrough.
13th Rejoined Flotilla to continue Operation BS Series with H M Auxiliary
BANK and HM Coastal Minelayer PLOVER.
Carried cut Operation BS14.
16th Operation BS15 with HMS EXPRESS.
19th Escorted minelayers with HMS ESK (Operation BS16)
Carried out minelay with HMS ICARUS, escorted by HMS ESK and HMS IMPULSIVE.
25th Repeated BS17 minelay (Operation BS18).
29th Carried out minelay with HMS EXPRESS and HMS ICARUS (Operation
7th Escorted minelayers with HMS ESK (Operation BS22).
21st Carried out minelay with Flotilla, except HMS IVANHOE (Operation
24th Escorted minelayers with HMS ICARUS and HMS IMPULSIVE (Operation
26th Carried out minelay with Flotilla escorted by Light Coastal Forces
30th Escorted HMS PLOVER and m Dutch Minelayer VAN DER ZAAN for minelay
HMS ESK (Operation BS29).
2nd Carried out minelay with Flotilla, HMS PLOVER and Dutch VAN DER ZAAN.
6th Although assigned to anti-invasion patrol duty deployed on lay of
an additional field
off Dutch coast with Flotilla, except HMS
IVANHOE (Operation CBX4).
7th Transferred to Dover Command for laying of anti-invasion
(Operations MP1a and MP1b).
(Note: Use of destroyers was preferred instead
off using slower converted merchant ships.)
12th Resumed Operations in BS Series with Flotilla.
13th Escorted HMS PLOVER and Dutch VAN DER ZAAN with HMS IMPULSIVE
16th Escorted HMS TEVIOT BANK with HMS IMPULSIVE (Operation BS32).
28th Escorted HMS TEVIOT BANK, HMS PLOVER and Dutch VAN DER ZAAN with HMS
ESK and HMS ICARUS (Operation BS36)
31st Deployed with HM Destroyers IVANHOE, ESK, EXPRESS and ICARUS for
off Dutch coast (Operation CBX5).
After recovery of lost paravane rejoined force
in new position.
(Note: The delay caused avoided this ship
becoming involved in the disastrous mining.
HMS EXPRESS, HMS ESK and HM S IVANHOE detonated
Remained outside mined area with HMS ICARUS.
Returned to Humber. For full details see Naval
Staff History -MINING).
Resumed minelaying near Goodwins based at Dover with HMS ICARUS and IMPULSIVE.
3rd Operation MS(a).
5th Operation MS(b).
6th Transferred to anti-invasion patrol and escort duties.
Deployed for Anti-invasion patrol and escort in Nore Command.
28th Resumed East Coast Barrier minelays in BS Series.
Escorted HMS TEVIOT BANK and HMS PLOVER
2nd Sustained significant structural damage to propulsion machinery when
detonating a mine off
Hartlepool during outward passage as escort for
HMS TEVIOT BANK and HMS PLOVER
for minelay in East Coast Barrage. (Operation
Ship disabled and taken in tow to Hartlepool.
3rd Taken in hand for repair at Hartlepool.
20th Rejoined Flotilla on completion.
1 9 4 1
8th Escorted HMS TEVIOT BANK for minelay in East Coast Barrage
12th Escorted HMS TEVIOT BANK for test lay with M<m mine off Humber
21st Nominated for Home Fleet minelaying operation off Fro Havet, Norway
Passage to Scapa Flow,
26th Carried cut successful trial with HM Submarine SEALION using ASDIC
Beacon as a
2nd Passage to Norway for minelay with HM Cruisers ARETHUSA and AURORA
by HM Destroyers MATABELE and TARTAR.
(Note: Operation EA was cancelled on passage
due to weather conditions.).
11th Re-deployed for minelaying off French coast with HMS ICARUS.
20th Carried out minelay off Brest escorted by ships of 5th Destroyer
Flotilla. (Operation GS).
Carried out minelay off He de Bas with HMS IMPULSIVE, escorted by MTB's
26th Carried out lay of magnetic mines off Cap D'Antifer with HM
Destroyers ICARUS and
IMPULSIVE escorted by HM Destroyers VANSITTART
and WIVERN (Operation JL).
Minelaying duties in Channel in continuation.
20th Carried out minelay from Dartmouth to position off lie de Bas
escorted by ships of 5th
Destroyer Flotilla and four ML's (Operation GU).
Carried out minelay between Le Havre and Cherbourg, escorted by H M Destroyers
TYNEDALE and CLEVELAND with additional cover
28th Laid minefield off Brest escorted by 5th Destroyer Flotilla
31st Repeated minelay off Brest (Operation GZ).
April Minelaying duties in Channel in continuation.
8th Carried out minelay alone on Le Havre to Cherbourg shipping route
to hinder use by German
warships. Escorted by HM Escort Destroyers
CLEVELAND and HMS FERNIE.
12th Planned minelay west of Ushant cancelled (Operation HA)
20th Carried cut minelay off Triagoz, Brittany with HMS ICARUS and HMS
(Operation HB in place of Operation HA),
21st Withdrawn from minelaying operations.
Nominated for Fleet duties 3rd Destroyer
Flotilla, Home Fleet.
Took passage to Immingham for conversion
26th Converted in commercial shipyard at Immingham.
(Note: After torpedo tubes and guns refitted.)
On completion returned to Scapa Flow to join
Deployed with Flotilla in Home Fleet.
6th Part of escort for ships of 1st Minelaying Squadron with HM
and ST MARY'S during Northern Barrage minelay in
Faeroes-Iceland Gap. (Operation SN9A).
16th Deployed for anti-submarine escort duties in North Atlantic based at
Joined escort for Convoy HX125 to reinforce
(See U-BOAT WAR IN THE ATLANTIC (HMSO) and SEEK
AND STRIKE by W Hackmann
for details of deployments of escorts and
submarines in 1941.)
23rd Deployed with screen for Home Fleet units during search for German
in NW Approaches
24th Detached to refuel in Iceland.
Return delayed by engine defects.
27th Rejoined Fleet screen after sinking of BISMARCK.
June Returned to Scapa Flow with Fleet.
(Note: Home Fleet destroyers came under air
attacks on return passage.)
5th Taken in hand for repair at Hull commercial shipyard.
15th On completion rejoined Flotilla at Scapa Flow.
Deployed with screen for Home Fleet units covering air operations by HM Aircraft
FURIOUS and VICTORIOUS on Kirkenes and Petsamo
During return passage rating died after serious
injury on deck in bad weather.
July Home Fleet duties with Flotilla in continuation.
Home Fleet duties with Flotilla in continuation.
Nominated for refit and took passage to Thames.
9th Deployed with HM Destroyers BULLDOG, CASTLETON, CHARLESTOWN, ECHO,
WHITEHALL, WINCHELSEA and WITCH as escort for
Convoy WS8C during passage
from Clyde to Scapa Flow (Operation
(Note: This convoy of 18 ships including
Landing Ships, loaded Troopships, MT Ships and
RFA Tankers was to wait at Scapa Flow pending a
political decision to carry out
occupation of the Azores for use as a forward
base for ships and aircraft providing
defence for Atlantic shipping
10th Arrived at Scapa Flow with WS8C
15th Operation cancelled and sailed from Scapa Flow as escort for return
passage of WS8C
to Clyde with HM Destroyers ANTELOPE, CASTLETON,
GEORGETOWN, LEAMINGTON and SALADIN.
Nominated for refit and took passage to Thames
29th Taken in hand for refit in commercial shipyard at Tilbury.
Carried out harbour trials
25th Rejoined Flotilla and worked up at Scapa Flow for operational
Deployed off Iceland for anti-submarine submarine support of Atlantic convoys..
Nominated for escort of Russian convoy during
passage from Iceland to Murmansk.
14th Escorted Russian Convoy PQ3 with HM Cruiser KENYA and HM Destroyer
24th Participated in bombardment of enemy positions at Vardo during
with HMS KENYA, HMS BEDOUIN and two Russian
(For details of all Russian Convoys see CONVOY!
by P Kemp, CONVOYS TO RUSSIA by
RA Ruegg, ARCTIC CONVOYS by R Woodman and THE
RUSSIAN CONVOYS by B
28th Deployed with escort for returning Convoy OP3 with HMS BEDOUIN.
2nd Detached from QP3 to join HM destroyers OFFA and ONSLOW as screen
for HM Cruisers
BERWICK and KENYA returning to UK with RAF
personnel from Murmansk.
7th Resumed duty with Home Fleet in Flotilla.
Took passage to Murmansk to join screen for HM
Cruiser KENT during return passage
25th At Murmansk for escort of HM Cruiser KENT with Foreign Secretary
29th Arrived at Scapa Flow with HMS KENT.
1 9 4 2
Home Fleet deployment in continuation.
Nominated for Russian Convoy escort.
5th Deployed as screen for HM Cruiser NIGERIA with HM Destroyer
FAULKNOR to provide
cover for passage of Convoy PQ9/10.
10th Detached with HMS FAULKNOR to join returning convoy QP7.
15th Detached from QP7 and resumed Home Fleet duties with Flotilla.
1st Part of Home Fleet screen during cover of Russian Convoy PQ12 and
return Convoy QP8.
11th Took part in unsuccessful search off Norway with HM Destroyers
FURY, BEDOUIN, ESKIMO and TARTAR in intercept
German battleship TIRPITZ after air
attacks by HM Aircraft Carrier VICTORIOUS on 9th
Nominated for refit and took passage to Humber.
24th Taken in hand for refit in commercial shipyard at Grimsby.
April Under refit.
30th On completion of post refit trials took passage to Scapa Flow and
joined 3rd Destroyer Flotilla.
3rd Sailed from
with HM Destroyer ECHO, US Destroyers USS LANG and USS
STERETT as screen for US aircraft carrier USS
WASP during Atlantic passage to Gibraltar
with aircraft for delivery Malta (Operation
8th Passage to Malta as Force W for screening of USS WASP with same
Joined by HM Battlecruiser RENOWN, HM Cruiser
CHARYBDIS, HM Destroyers VIDETTE,
PARTRIDGE, ITHURIEL, WESTCOTT, WISHART, WRESTLER
and ANTELOPE with
HM Aircraft Carrier EAGLE, HM Destroyers
GEORGETOWN, SALISBURY for delivery of
17 aircraft to
not carried out previously.
9th On completion of launch of aircraft returned to Gibraltar and took
passage to rejoin Home Fleet.
10th Passage to Scapa Flow with HMS RENOWN and destroyers detached from
Home Fleet for this
For details see MALTA CONVOYS and Naval Staff
15th Resumed Home Fleet deployment
23rd Part of screen for HM Battleship DUKE OF YORK, US battleship USS
VICTORIOUS, HM Cruiser LONDON and US cruiser
WICHITA with eight other destroyers
from Home Fleet and four US Navy destroyers
providing Distant Cover for passage of Russian
Convoy PQ16 and returning QP12.
31st Diverted to carry cut anti-submarine search after U-Boat threat
reported by HM Destroyer
NEWARK to minelaying operation in Denmark Strait
by ships of the 1st Minelaying Squadron
covered by HM Cruiser MANCHESTER (Operation
No contact made. Later it was established there
was no German submarine in area
2nd Independent passage to Murmansk.
26th Joined escorted of returning Convoy OP 13 with HM Destroyer
3rd Detached from QP13 and took passage to embark ammunition and spares
for escorts held at
Murmansk to await sailing of next return convoy
(Note: This had been delayed after the
disastrous dispersal of previous Convoy PQ17.
See above references.)
Made independent passage to Murmansk with HMS
Embarked passengers including survivors from HM
Cruiser EDINBURGH for return.
Nominated for detached service in support of
5th Deployed with HM Destroyers FORESIGHT, FURY, ICARUS, LAFOREY,
VANSITTART, VANSITTART, WESTCOTT and WRESTLER as
screen for HM
Aircraft Carriers ARGUS, EAGLE, INDOMITABLE,
VICTORIOUS, HM Cruisers PHOEBE
and SIRIUS during special exercises in Atlantic
to carry out procedures for Fighter Direction
and air defence during planned Malta relief
operation (Exercise BERSERK)
(Note: HMS ARGUS was deployed for provision of
support during exercise)
8th On completion of exercise took passage to refuel at Gibraltar with
BERSERK ships, except
HMS ARGUS, prior to joining military Convoy WS21
for screening duties during passage
11th Joined WS21S as part of Force Z and under submarine attack during
which HMS EAGLE was
torpedoed and sunk.
Took part in rescue of 22 survivors from HMS
Under heavy and sustained air attacks during
which HMS INDOMITABLE was damaged.
12th Transferred to Force X which was to escort WS21 ships through
Sicilian Narrows when Force
Z remained to the west of Pantellaria
Other ships in Force Z were:
HM Cruisers CAIRO, KENYA, MANCHESTER and
HM Destroyers ASHANTI, FURY, ICARUS, PATHFINDER,
WILTON, LEDBURY, WILTON and BRAMHAM
For details of the valiant and successful
defence of this convoy and the price paid see
PEDESTAL by Peter C Smith, MALTA CONVOYS and
Naval Staff History.).
13th Deployed in minesweeping role ahead of convoy during transit of
Under attacks by Torpedo Boats
(Note: Threat of attack by Italian Cruiser
Squadron never materialised.)
Detached from WS21S on arrival off Grand Harbour
and returned with surviving warships of
Force X to rejoin Force Z waiting off Algiers.
14th Rejoined Force Z off Bougie.
15th Arrived at Gibraltar with Force Z
19th Passage to Scapa Flow to rejoin Home Fleet.
Rejoined Flotilla in Home Fleet for Russian Convoy duty.
Present at Scapa Flow for visit by Prime
Minister prior to deployment.
9th Part of Force B in the Fighting Escort for Convoy PQ18 with HM
MARTIN, METEOR, FAULKNOR, FURY and IMPULSIVE for
passage to Kola Inlet.
17th Detached from PQ18 with Fighting Escort and joined returning Convoy
21st Took part in anti-submarine attacks with HM Destroyer ESKIMO after
SOMALI was torpedoed. Remained with HMS SOMALI
during tow by HMS ASHANTI.
24th Assisted in rescue of survivors when HMS SOMALI sank.
Home Fleet deployment in continuation.
13th Detached to embark Medical unit for passage to Archangel with HM
Cruiser ARGONAUT and
HM Destroyer OBDURATE.
Returned with RAF aircrew.
Nominated for escort of return Convoy QP15 from Archangel
(Note: This was the final QP series convoy and
departure had been delayed by lack of suitable
escorts for an inward convoy due to the
extensive commitments to provide support for
landings in North Africa (Operation TORCH)
Passage to meet QP15 with HM Destroyers ECHO,
FAULKNOR, ICARUS and IMPULSIVE.
(Note: Cruiser Cover was provided by HM
Cruisers SUFFOLK and NORFOLK with
destroyer screen and three submarines were
deployed to intercept any attempt to attack
by German warships based at Altenfjord .
20th Joined QP 15 and relieved Local Escort from Archangel.
Formed Ocean Escort with HM AA Ship
QUEEN. HM Minesweeper SALAMANDER
and four corvettes which had escorted convoy
from Archangel with two Russian destroyers.
HMS ECHO detached on relief by HM Destroyers LEDBURY and MIDDLETON.
23rd HM Destroyers MUSKETEER, ORWELL and OAKLEY joined Ocean Escort..
26th Detached from Ocean Escort with HM Destroyers FAULKNOR, ICARUS and
(Note: Ships may have required to refuel as
they did not rejoin QP15)
Nominated for refit at commercial shipyard and took passage to Humber.
2nd Taken in hand.
1 9 4 3
17th On completion of post refit trials took passage to Scapa Flow to
join 8th Destroyer Flotilla
Nominated for screening of Home Fleet ships providing cover for Russian Convoy
7th Part of destroyer screen for Hone Fleet units on passage to
21st Escorted HM Cruiser SCYLLA with HM Destroyers ECLIPSE, IMPULSIVE,
Polish ORKAN to reinforce escort of Russian
27th Detached from JW53
1st Joined escort for return Convoy RA53 with HM Cruiser SCYLLA and HM
OBEDIENT and OBDURATE.
7th Detached from RA53 with same ships and returned to Scapa Flow.
18th Escorted HM Destroyer MILNE from Scrabster carrying King George VI
to visit Home
Fleet at Scapa Flow.
April Detached with ships of Flotilla for temporary duty
as 4th Escort Group in Western
Approaches for Atlantic convoy defence.
Escorted HM Cruiser BELFAST during patrol in
Returned to Scapa Flow as escort for HM Battleship ANSON.
Atlantic convoy support in continuation with
June Resumed Home Fleet duties with Flotilla.
5th Attended National Savings Campaign event at Lerwick.
17th Redeployed with 8th Destroyer Flotilla ships and nominated for
service in Mediterranean.
Escorted Home Fleet units on passage to
Gibraltar for Sicily landing (Operation HUSKY)
23rd Deployed in Western Mediterranean as screen for Fleet units.
July Detached for duty in Eastern Mediterranean for
escort of Fleet units covering passage of
military convoys to Sicily.
7th Sailed from Alexandria
9th Joined screen for HM Battleships NELSON, RODNEY, WARSPITE and
HM Aircraft Carriers INDOMITABLE and FORMIDABLE
deployed with cruisers and
destroyers to prevent interference by Italian
fleet during landings.
12th Escorted HMS WARSPITE to Malta to refuel and for return for gunfire
13th Deployed for patrol and naval gunfire support duties off Sicily
Support of military operations in continuation.
2nd Part of escort for HMS WARSPITE and HMS VALIANT during bombardment
Calabrian coast before British landings on
mainland of Italy (Operation BAYTOWN).
9th Deployed with Force H for screening duties during assault at
10th Escorted HMS WARSPITE and HMS VALIANT to meet surrendered Italian
make a triumphant entry into Malta.
12th Deployed for support of landings at Salerno.
16th Transferred Levant Command with Flotilla to reinforce defence of
Aegean islands against
German operations after Italian surrender.
17th Intercepted convoy off Stampalia and sank submarine chaser UJ2104.
18th Embarked man of 1st Durham Light Infantry at Haifa for passage to
Took passage from Leros to Alexandria for
transport troops and stores to Leros.
19th Passage to Leros from Alexandria.
21st Returned to Alexandria with HM Destroyer ECHO
25th Sailed from Alexandria for interception of convoys in Aegean.
Diverted to Leros whilst on passage
26th Under air attack at Port Laki, Leros.
Bomb hit amidships caused major damage in Boiler
Rooms and disabled ship.
Moved to anchor in less vulnerable position to
In subsequent air raid hit aft and stem blown
Ship abandoned and took in water.
27th Capsized and sank. 15 of ship’s company were killed.
Survivors were taken to Beirut
p e c i a l N o t e
Attention is drawn to the book INTREPID by George Mack
which is an account of the war service of this ship. In 1964 the name INTREPID was
carried forward for the seventh time when given to the
Assault Ship HMS INTREPID. She is still currently is service but will be replaced by HMS OCEAN.
CONVOY ESCORT MOVEMENTS of
by Don Kindell
This convoy list has not been cross-checked with the text above
Date convoy sailed
Joined convoy as escort
Date convoy arrived
(Note on Convoys)