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Major British & Dominion Warship Losses in World War 2



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HM S/M H.49, lost 18 October 1940  (Courtesy Navy Photos, click to enlarge)

on to RN loss summary tables
or return to World War 2, 1939-1945

including Midget Submarines & Human Torpedoes


(in date order within each year,  ctl - constructive total loss)












Far East
















Seahorse, Undine, Starfish, Thistle, Tarpon, Sterlet, Unity, Seal, Shark, Salmon, Narwhal, Thames, Spearfish, H.49, Swordfish (total 15)


Odin, Grampus, Orpheus, Phoenix, Oswald, Triad, Rainbow, Regulus, Triton (9) 






Snapper, Umpire

Usk, Undaunted, Union, Cachalot, P.32, P.33, Tetrarch, Traveller, Perseus, P.48, Triumph (11)




P.514, Unique, Unbeaten


Tempest, P.38, P.39, Pandora, P.36, Upholder, Urge, Olympus, Thorn, Talisman, Utmost, P.222, P.311 (13) 






Tigris, Turbulent, Thunderbolt, Regent, Splendid, Sahib, Parthian, Saracen, Trooper, Usurper, Simoon (11)





Graph, Syrtis


Stonehenge, Stratagem







Shakespeare (ctl), Porpoise, Terrapin (ctl)






There are links to only some submarine histories







68. 'H' class, 9 boats - 410/500 tons, 13/10 knots, 4tt, 22 crew, 1918-20, 2 lost: 

H.31 (Lt F B Gibbs+), December 1941, North Atlantic in Bay of Biscay - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Falmouth and left escort on the 19th December for Biscay patrol, 250 miles north of Cape Finisterre because of possible breakout by German heavy ships from Brest. Failed to answer signal on 24th and overdue by the 26th, cause of loss unknown. Possibly German minefield or drifting British mines between 19th and 24th; all 33 crew lost (Bay of Biscay patrol)


H.49 (Lt R E Coltart+), 18th October 1940, Western Europe, off Texel island, Holland in North Sea - by depth charges from five German anti-submarine trawlers of the 5th A/S Flotilla including UJ.116 and UJ.118. Sailed from Harwich on 17th for patrol off Dutch coast at time of threatened German invasion of Britain; 26 crew lost, one survivor reached the surface and taken prisoner (Battle of Britain patrol)

Surviving boats all scrapped before end of war - H.28, H.32, H.33, H.34, H.43, H.44, H.50.


HM S/M H.49



 69. 'L' class, 3 boats - 760/1,080 tons, 17/10 knots, 1-4in/4tt, 40 crew, 1919 

Surviving boats - L.23, L.26, L.27

HM S/M L.27









70. 'O' class, 9 boats - 1,400/1,900 tons, 16/9 knots, 1-4in/8tt, 55 crew, 1927-30, 5 lost: 

ODIN (Lt Cdr K Mac I Woods+), 14th June 1940, Central Mediterranean, off southern Italy in Gulf of Taranto (c39.30N, 17.30E) - by depth charges of Italian warships. Sailed from Alexandria, Egypt for patrol in Gulf of Taranto, attacked late on the 13th by destroyer ‘Strale’ with torpedoes and gunfire and then probably damaged by depth charges. Shortly after midnight as she surfaced, sighted by destroyer ‘Baleno’, attacked again with depth charges and sunk. All 56 crew lost, including the Chinese steward (Italian Gulf of Taranto patrol)


OLYMPUS (Lt Cdr H G Dymott), 8th May 1942, Central Mediterranean, 6 miles from St Elmo Light, off Malta Grand Harbour - German E-boat-laid mines. On passage with personnel from Malta to Gibraltar, including some of the crews of bombed submarines ‘Pandora’,  ‘P.36’ and ‘P.39’, surfaced at the time; 98 lost composed of 68 crew,  one  from ‘Pandora’, three from ‘P.36’ and 26 from ‘P.39’, nine managed to swim to the shore – three from ‘Olympus’ and six from ‘P.39’ (Battle for Malta)


ORPHEUS (Lt Cdr J A S Wise+), possibly 19th June 1940, Eastern Mediterranean, off Cyrenaica, eastern Libya – cause of loss and location varies. Sailed from Malta on 10th for patrol off coast of Libya, and apparently acknowledged signal on 19th when 100 miles NW of Benghazi, before disappearing. Causes listed include depth charged and sunk by Italian destroyer 'Turbine' off Tobruk (c32.30N, 24.00E) on the 19th (but probably not if 100 miles NW of Benghazi on that date) or possibly lost on minefield in the same Tobruk area. All 55 crew lost (North African patrol)


OSWALD (Lt Cdr D A Fraser), 1st August 1940, Central Mediterranean, 10 miles SE of Cape Spartivento, SW Italy in Ionian Sea - rammed by Italian destroyer ‘Ungolino Vivaldi'. Sailed from Alexandria on 19th July for patrol east of Sicily. Around noon on the 30th, made an unsuccessful attack on escorted convoy. Italian destroyers were sent out to hunt for her, sighted just after midnight by ‘Vivaldi’, rammed, depth-charged and fired on, and boat abandoned. Three crew lost, 52 taken prisoner (Ionian Sea patrol)


OXLEY (Lt Cdr H G Bowerman), 10th September 1939, Western Europe, off Norwegian coast, south of Stavanger in North Sea (58.30N, 05.42E) - torpedoed in error by RN submarine 'Triton'. On patrol off Obrestad Light, SW Norway, out of position, failed to respond to signals and challenges from ‘Triton’ and eventually torpedoed; 53 killed, CO and one rating rescued (southern Norwegian patrol)


Surviving boats - OBERON, OSIRIS, OTUS, OTWAY


 HM S/M Oxley (Courtesy NavyPhotos)



71. 'P' & 'R' classes, 9 boats - 1,480/2,050 tons, 17/9 knots, 1-4in or 4.7in/8tt, 55 crew, 1930-32, 7 lost: 

PANDORA (Lt R L Alexander), 1st April 1942, Central Mediterranean, at Malta - by German or Italian bombers. In harbour after supply trip from Gibraltar, arrived 31st March and on the surface, still being unloaded; 27 killed and one wounded officer lost in ‘Olympus’ (Defence of Malta)


PARTHIAN (Lt C A Pardoe+), probably 6th August 1943, Central Mediterranean - ‘overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Malta on 22nd July for patrol west of Greece and in southern Adriatic. Signal on 6th August to leave patrol area was not acknowledged, and nothing more heard. Overdue at Beirut on 11th August. Probably mined off Brindisi, SE tip of Italy around the 6th or when returning to Beirut; all 65 crew lost (southern Adriatic Sea patrol)


PERSEUS (Lt Cdr E C D Nicolay+), 6th December 1941, Central Mediterranean, 7 miles north of Zante island, west coast of Greece in Ionian Sea - by Italian mines. Sailed from Malta on 26th November for Alexandria with orders to patrol west of Greece on passage; 58 crew lost, one rating got to the surface and swam 5 miles ashore to Cephalonia before spending 18 months being sheltered by the Greeks (Ionian Sea patrol)


PHOENIX (Lt Cdr G H Nowell+), 16th July 1940, Central Mediterranean, off Augusta, eastern Sicily in Ionian Sea – probably by depth charges of Italian torpedo boat 'Albatros'. Believed sailed from Malta for patrol south of Strait of Messina, last heard from night of 14th/15th July, then disappeared. Possibly mined, but may also have attacked an escorted tanker off Cape Santa Croce, near Augusta on the 16th, and then depth charged and sunk in counter-attack by ‘Albatros’; all 55 crew lost (Ionian Sea patrol)


RAINBOW (Lt Cdr L P Moore+), 10th October 1940, Central Mediterranean, Gulf of Otranto area – in collision with Italian merchantman ‘Antonietta Costa’. Believed sailed from Alexandria for patrol in Gulf of Taranto and later Gulf of Otranto area, attacking convoy and collided with or rammed by the Italian ship, sank off Durazzo, Albania, with all 55 crew.  For many years, the fate of ‘Rainbow’ and ‘Triad’ (see below) had been reversed with ‘Rainbow’ described as lost in a duel with Italian submarine ‘Enrico Toti’ off Calabria on the 15th (Southern Italy patrol)


REGENT (Lt W Knox+), probably 18th April 1943, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Malta on 12th April for patrol along S coast of Italy. Attacked small convoy near Bari, SE coast of Italy on the 18th April, but not counter-attacked. Presumed lost on Italian mines between the 18th and 25th, probably off Bari on the evening of the 18th following the convoy attack. Failed to return to Beirut on 1st May; all 63 crew lost, three bodies washed ashore in May (southern Adriatic Sea patrol)


REGULUS (Lt Cdr F B Currie+), November/December 1940, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Alexandria, Egypt on 18th November for patrol in southern Adriatic. Failed to return on 6th December and presumed mined around Strait of Otranto area. Italian aircraft claim to have sunk a submarine in these waters on 26th November; all 55 crew lost (southern Adriatic Sea patrol)


Surviving boats - PROTEUS, ROVER 

HM S/M Parthian



72. Thames class, 3 boats - 1,850/2,700 tons, 22/10 knots, 1-4in/6tt, 60 crew, 1932-35, 1 lost:  

THAMES (Lt Cdr W D Dunkerley+), probably 2nd/3rd August 1940, Western Europe in North Sea - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Left Dundee, Scotland on 22nd July for patrol off SW Norway. May have torpedoed German torpedo boat ‘Luchs’ in attack on battlecruiser ‘Gneisenau’ on the 26th and sunk in the resulting explosion, failed to return on 3rd August. (Some sources attribute this sinking to ‘Swordfish’). Probably went down on 2nd/3rd August in newly-laid German minefield in around  56.45N, 03.26E; all 62 crew lost (southern Norwegian patrol)


Surviving boats - CLYDE, SEVERN


HMS/M Thames



73. Porpoise class minelayers, 6 boats - 1,500/2,100 tons, 15/9 knots, 1-4in/6tt & 50 mines, 60 crew, 1933-39, 5 lost: 

CACHALOT (Lt Cdr H R B Newton), 30th July 1941, Central Mediterranean, NW of Benghazi, eastern Libya - rammed by Italian torpedo boat 'Generale Achille Papa'. Sailed from Malta on 26th with personnel for Alexandria with orders to search for a Benghazi-bound tanker. Spotted by escorting torpedo boat which opened fire and rammed; Maltese steward lost, 67 crew and 20 naval passengers taken prisoner (Defence of Malta)


GRAMPUS (Lt Cdr C A Rowe+), 16th June 1940, Central Mediterranean, off Augusta, eastern Sicily in Ionian Sea (c37.00N, 15.30E) - by Italian torpedo boats 'Circe', 'Clio', ‘Calliope’ and ‘Polluce’. Sailed from Malta on 10th to lay mines off east coast of Sicily, signalled successful lay on the 13th, nothing further heard. Sighted by Italian ships three days later, a final depth charge attack by ‘Circe’ and ‘Polluce’ is believed to have sunk her; all 59 crew lost, including the Chinese steward (Ionian Sea minelaying operation)


NARWHAL (Lt Cdr R J Burch+), probably 23rd July 1940, Western Europe in North Sea - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Blyth, NE coast of England on 22nd July with orders to lay mines off Kristiansund N on 28th. Failed to return and paid off on 1st August, loss at the time attributed to mines or aircraft. Later research suggests that the day after departure, she was bombed and sunk in the North Sea (in 56.30N, 01.10E?) by a German Dornier flying boat; all 60 crew lost (Norwegian minelaying operation)


PORPOISE (Lt Cdr H B Turner+), 19th January 1945, South East Asia, Malacca Straits area between Malaya and Sumatra - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Trincomalee on 2nd January to lay mines off Penang, reported the laying, then not heard from again. Japanese records suggest she was bombed and damaged in an aircraft attack near Penang, leaked oil and was sunk by anti-submarine forces, probably on the 19th; all 74 crew lost (Indian Ocean - Malacca Straits Patrol and Minelaying)


SEAL (Lt Cdr R Lonsdale), captured 5th May 1940, Western Europe off the Skaw, northern Denmark in the Kattegat - captured by German Arado seaplane and anti-submarine trawler ‘UJ.128’. Sailed on 29th April for minelaying operation in southern Kattegat. Attacked by German aircraft on 4th without serious damage, mines laid but other A/S  forces were already alerted,  ‘Seal’ damaged by German mine  and stuck on the bottom, still on the 4th. Managed to surface on 5th with intention of making for neutral Sweden, came under heavy aircraft attack, unable to dive and surrendered; one crew lost, 54 taken prisoner, of whom one died in captivity. Re-commissioned as German UB (Kattegat minelaying operation)


Surviving boat – RORQUAL



HM S/M Seal after her capture



74. 'S' classes - Pre-war Programme, 12 boats - 670/960 tons, 14/10 knots, 1-3in/6tt, 40 crew, 1932-38, 8 lost: 

SALMON (Lt Cdr E O B Bickford+), possibly 9th July 1940, Western Europe in North Sea - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Left Rosyth, SE Scotland on 4th July for patrol off Skudesnes, SW Norway. Failed to return on 14th or report on the 15th. Believed lost on 9th in German minefield SW of Norway around 57.22N, 05.00E; all 41 crew lost (Southern Norwegian patrol)


SEAHORSE (Lt D S Massey-Dawson+), 7th January 1940, Western Europe, 18 miles NW of Heligoland island off German North Sea coast (54.19N, 07.30E) - by German 1st Minesweeping Flotilla. Sailed from Rosyth on 26th December for patrol in Heligoland Bight, failed to return on the 9th, assumed mined at the time but now believed sunk by depth charge attack; all 39 crew lost (German North Sea coast patrol)


SHARK (Lt Cdr P N Buckley), sank 6th July 1940, Western Europe, off Skudesnes, Norway in North Sea - by German aircraft. On patrol off south west Norway, attacked on surface and damaged by bombs dropped by seaplane late on the 5th. Back on the surface, attacked by more aircraft, damaged and surrendered. Four trawlers arrived, ‘Shark’ taken in tow, but sank on the 6th near Stavanger. Three crew killed during the attacks, 32 survivors (southern Norwegian patrol)


SNAPPER (Lt G V Prowse+), February 1941, Western Europe in Bay of Biscay, possibly off Brest- 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from the Clyde, SW Scotland on 29th January for Bay of Biscay patrol, SW of Ushant. Left her escort at Land's End, due to leave patrol area night of 10th February, but not heard from again and failed to rendezvous on the 12th. Possibly went down in German minefield or to depth charge attacks late on the 10th/early on the 11th by minesweepers ‘M.2’, ‘M.13’ and ‘M.25’; all 42 crew lost (Bay of Biscay patrol)


SPEARFISH (Lt Cdr J H Forbes+), 1st August 1940, Western Europe, off Norway in North Sea (c58.00N, 01.00E) – torpedoed by German ‘U.34’ (Rollmann). Sailed from Rosyth on 31st July for Norwegian coast patrol, on the surface, attacked and sunk by ‘U.34’, 180 miles WSW of Stavanger; 41 crew lost, one survivor taken prisoner (Norwegian patrol)


STARFISH (Lt T A Turner), 9th January 1940, Western Europe, off German North Sea coast in Heligoland Bight - by depth charges from German minesweeper ‘M.7’ and other vessels. Sailed from Blyth on 5th for patrol off Horn Reef, attacked ‘M.7’, originally identified as a destroyer. Other vessels joined in the attack, ‘Starfish’ forced to surface, came under fire and scuttled, all 39 crew saved (German North Sea coast patrol)


STERLET (Lt Cdr G H S Haward+), mid-April 1940, Western Europe, off southern Norway in Skagerrak (c58.00N, 11.00E) - by depth charges from German anti-submarine vessels, or possibly mined. Sailed on 8th April for Skagerrak patrol during German invasion of Norway, loss details are still uncertain. On the 12th attacked a convoy unsuccessfully, and on the 14th torpedoed German gunnery training ship ‘Brummer’ off Jutland, where she sank next day. She may have been sunk in the counter-attack by the escort. Other possibilities include depth-charged by minesweeper ‘M.75’ on the 17th or 18th, by anti-submarine trawlers ‘UJ.125’, ‘UJ.126’ and ‘UJ.128’ on the 18th, or mined in a field laid on the 8th. All 41 crew lost (Norwegian Campaign patrol)


SWORDFISH (Lt M A Langley+), 7th November 1940, Western Europe, English Channel off the Isle of Wight, southern England - probably German mines. Sailed from Portsmouth on 7th November for Brest patrol. Failed to signal back on 15th and 16th, and not heard from again. At the time she was declared 'overdue, presumed lost' and believed sunk in the Bay of Biscay either on mines or at the hands of German destroyers near Brest. Her wreck was discovered in 1983 a few miles south of St Catherine's Point off the Isle of Wight. She had been mined a few hours after leaving Portsmouth, with the loss of all 41 crew (Brest patrol)


Lost while manned by Allied Navy - 'V.1' (ex-SUNFISH), Russian Navy, 27th July 1944, on passage to Russian 


Surviving boats - SEALION (expended in 1945 as anti-submarine target), SEAWOLF, STURGEON (Dutch 'Zeehond' from 1943)


HM S/M Sterlet



War Programme - 48 boats completed by war's end - 720/990 tons, 15/9 knots, 1-3in or 4in/6 or 7tt, 45 crew, 1942-45, 9 lost and 1 not repaired: 

P.222 (Lt A J MacKenzie+), 12th December 1942, Central Mediterranean, SE of Capri island, western Italy in Gulf of Naples - by depth charges from Italian torpedo boat 'Fortunale'. Sailed from Gibraltar on 30th November for patrol off Naples, last signal on 7th December, failed to arrive at Algiers on 21st. Attacking Italian convoy off Naples and probably sunk by escorts; all 47 crew lost (Gulf of Naples patrol)


SAHIB (Lt J H Brommage), 24th April 1943, Central Mediterranean, 10 miles north of Cape Milazzo, NE Sicily in Tyrrhenian Sea (c38.30N, 15.15E) - by depth charges from Italian torpedo boat ‘Climene’, corvettes ‘Euterpe’ and 'Gabbiano' and attacks by German Ju.88 aircraft. Counter-attacked after sinking escorted Italian transport ‘Galiola’, managed to surface, scuttled; one rating lost, 47 crew taken prisoner (NE Sicily patrol)


SARACEN (Lt M G R Lumby), 14th August 1943, Central Mediterranean, off Bastia, NE coast of Corsica in Tyrrhenian Sea - by depth charges from Italian corvettes 'Euterpe' and 'Minerva'. On patrol off approaches to Bastia, forced to the surface and boat scuttled; four crew lost, 44 taken prisoner, two of whom died in captivity (Corsica patrol)


SHAKESPEARE (Lt D Swanston), damaged 3rd January 1945, South East Asia, off Port Blair area, Andaman Islands in the Andaman Sea - by gunfire of Japanese merchant ship, and later damaged in bombing attack. Surfaced to engage the merchantman and damaged by return fire. Later attacked from the air; two crew killed, 13 wounded. Not repaired (Indian Ocean - Andaman Islands patrol)


SICKLE (Lt J R Drummond+), around 16th June 1944, Eastern Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Malta on 31st May for the Aegean Sea. Engaged shipping in Mitylene Harbour on the 4th, return fire from German patrol vessels ‘GA.76’ and ‘GA.91’ killed one of the gun crew and blew a second into the sea. He was saved as a POW. ‘Sickle’ signalled convoy between Piraeus and Leros on 12th June, but did not attack. Failed to return when recalled on the 14th. Probably went down on German mines after the 12th in the southern Aegean, possibly the Kythera Channel on the 16th; all remaining 49 crew lost (Aegean Sea patrol)


SIMOOM (Lt G D Milner+), around 19th November 1943, Eastern Mediterranean. - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Port Said, Egypt on the 2nd November for the Aegean and arrived off the Dardanelles on 6th. Failed to answer signal on 19th, presumed mined and paid off on that date. Germans claim possibly sunk by ‘U.565’ (Henning) SE of Kos island on 15th, but do not exclude mining; all 49 crew lost (British Aegean Campaign patrol)


SPLENDID (Lt I L McGeoch), 21st April 1943, Central Mediterranean, south of Capri, western Italy in the Tyrrhenian Sea (c40.30N, 14.15E) - by depth charges and gunfire of German destroyer 'Hermes'. Sailed from Malta on 17th  April for patrol off Naples and later the W coast of Corsica, detected by the ex-Greek ‘Hermes’, badly damaged in the depth charge attacks, surfaced, fired on and scuttled; 18 crew lost, 27 saved and taken prisoner. Lt McGeoch lost an eye in the sinking, but still escaped back to Britain in May 1944 (Italian West Coast patrol)


STONEHENGE (Lt Cdr D S Verschoyle-Campbell+), early to mid-March 1944, South East Asia, Nicobar Islands area - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Trincomalee, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) on 25th February for patrol between the Nicobar Islands and Malacca Straits, failed to return on 20th March. Cause of loss unknown but possibly mine or accident N of Sumatra between the 2nd and 16th March; all 50 crew lost (Indian Ocean - Nicobar Islands patrol)


STRATAGEM (Lt Cdr P Pelly+), 22nd November 1944, South East Asia, off Malacca, SW Malaya in Malacca Straits - by depth charges of Japanese destroyer. Sailed from Trincomalee on 10th November, attacked and sank tanker ‘Nichinan Maru’ south of Malacca, possibly on 18th. Spotted by Japanese aircraft on 22nd, destroyer called up, attacked and sank her with depth charges; 50 crew lost, eight escaped to the surface, but only three survived Japanese captivity. The fate of the other three is still not known (Indian Ocean - Straits of Malacca patrol)


SYRTIS (Lt M H Jupp+), 28th March 1944, Western Europe, off Bodo, northern Norway in Norwegian Sea - by German mines. Sailed from Lerwick on 16th March for patrol off Bodo. Sank steamer ‘Narvik’ with gunfire on 22nd, failed to acknowledge signal to return on 28th, believed lost in flanking minefields with all 48 crew (Norwegian coast patrol)




HM S/M Stoic



75. 'T' classes - Pre-war Programmes, 15 boats - 1,090/1,580 tons, 15/9 knots, 1-4in/10tt, 60 crew, 1938-41, 9 lost:  

TALISMAN (Lt Cdr M Willmott+), around 16th or 17th September 1942, Western or Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Left Gibraltar on 10th September with stores for Malta, due to arrive on 18th. Reported U-boat off Philippeville, Algeria on 15th, but not heard from again. Believed lost on Italian mines in Strait of Sicily around 16th or 17th. Also claimed sunk by surface ships off Marittimo island, west of Sicily; all 63 crew lost (Defence of Malta)


TARPON (Lt Cdr H J Caldwell+), probably 10th April 1940, Western Europe off southern Norway in Skagerrak - by depth charges of German anti-submarine vessel (probably decoy ship Schiff 40 on the 10th or possibly minesweeper ‘M.6’ on the 14th – sources vary, although one lists ‘M.6’ taking part in the attack on the 10th). Left Portsmouth with submarine ‘Severn’ on the 5th, bound for Rosyth, next day ordered to Norway. On patrol in approaches to Skagerrak during German invasion of Norway, attacked the A/S vessel and counter-attacked in return; all 53 crew lost (Norwegian Campaign patrol)


TETRARCH (Lt Cdr G H Greenway+), possibly 27th October 1941, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Malta on 26th October for refit in Britain, exchanged signals with ‘P.34’ on 27th, but failed to arrive in Gibraltar on 2nd November. Presumed went down on Italian mines in Strait of Sicily on the 27th; all 62 on board, including three submariner passengers were lost (Mediterranean passage)


THISTLE (Lt Cdr W F Hanselfoot+), 10th April 1940, Western Europe off Stavanger, SW Norway in North Sea (c59.00N, 05.00E) – torpedoed by German ‘U.4’ (Hinsch). On patrol in Utsira area during German invasion of Norway, unsuccessfully attacked ‘U.4’, later on the surface and sunk in turn by her previous target; all 53 crew lost (Norwegian Campaign patrol)


THUNDERBOLT (ex-'Thetis') (Lt Cdr C Crouch+), 14th March 1943, Central Mediterranean, off Cape San Vito, NW Sicily in Tyrrhenian Sea - by depth charges from Italian corvette 'Cicogna'.  On patrol off Sicily, attacked and hit Italian merchant ship ‘Esterel’ on the 12th, Italian anti-submarine forces sent out. Sighted same day by torpedo boat ‘Libra’ and again on the 14th by ‘Cicogna’ which carried out a number of depth charge attacks, sinking ‘Thunderbolt’; all 62 crew lost. Her wreck has been found (N Sicily patrol)


TIGRIS (Lt Cdr G R Colvin+), believed 27th February 1943, Central Mediterranean, 6 miles SE of Capri, W coast of Italy - depth charges of German submarine chaser ‘UJ.2210’. ‘Tigris’ left Malta on 18th February to patrol S of Naples. May have been sighted off Capri on 24th, failed to return to Algiers on the 10th, declared 'overdue, presumed lost'. Italian aircraft reported probable mine explosion off the Gulf of Tunis on the 10th March that might have been 'Tigris' returning from patrol. More likely she was sunk on the 27th February by ‘UJ.2210’, escorting a convoy SE of Capri; all 63 crew lost (Gulf of Naples patrol)


TRIAD (Lt Cdr G S Salt+), 15th October 1940, Central Mediterranean, off Calabria, SW Italy (38.15N, 17.37E) – by gunfire and possibly torpedo of Italian submarine ‘Enrico Toti’. Sailed from Malta on the 9th October for Alexandria where she was due to arrive on the 20th to join the 1st Flotilla. En route she was to carry out a patrol off the Italian Calabrian coast in the Ionian Sea in some sources, off the Libyan coast in others. Originally listed as 'overdue, presumed lost', her loss details vary – possibly mined off Benghazi, Libya or in the Gulf of Taranto around the 13th or 20th. It has now been established that her fate and that of ‘Rainbow’ had been reversed for many years and it was in fact ‘Triad’ that was sunk in the gun/torpedo duel with ‘Enrico Toti’ on the 15th. All 52 crew lost.


TRITON (Lt G C I St B S Watkins+), possibly 6th December 1940, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Malta on the 28th November for southern Adriatic, overdue on 18th December and believed mined in the Strait of Otranto. However, she may have been sunk by Italian torpedo boats ‘Altair’ and ‘Andromeda’ on the 6th following a successful attack on Italian merchant ship ‘Olimpia’, or by torpedo boat ‘Clio’ (and/or ‘Confienza’) on the 18th, but this would have been some days after she should have left her patrol area; all 54 crew lost (southern Adriatic Sea patrol)


TRIUMPH (Lt J S Huddart+), probably early January 1942, Eastern Mediterranean in the southern Aegean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Alexandria on 26th December to land party near Athens before patrol in the Aegean Sea. Signalled on the 30th to report the landing, but failed to rendezvous back on 9th January. Probably sunk by Italian mines somewhere off SE Greece, including the Cyclades area, the island group SE of Athens and Hydra (Ydra) island, SW of Athens; all 62 crew lost (Aegean Sea patrol)



HM S/M Triad




War Programme - 34 boats completed by war's end - 1,090/1,580 tons, 15/9 knots, 1-4in/11tt, 60 crew, 1941-45, 6 lost and 1 not repaired: 

When Prime Minister Winston Churchill discovered British submarines were being allocated numbers like 'Narzi' U-boats, he insisted they be given names. Unfortunately for some it was too late. 

P.311 (Cdr R D Cayley+), probably 1st January 1943, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Left Scotland in November 1942 with sister-boats ‘Thunderbolt’ and ‘Trooper’ after addition of deck-mounted watertight containers for human torpedoes, and headed direct for Malta. From there, sailed on 28th December with two Chariots for attack on Italian cruisers at Maddalena, NE Sardinia (Operation ‘Principal’). Last signal on 30th or the 31st December from position 38.10N, 11.30E and failed to rendezvous for attack or return to Malta on 8th January. Probably lost on Italian mines in the approaches to Maddalena on the 1st. Italians claim sunk by torpedo boat 'Partenope' on 29th; 61 crew and 10 Charioteers – four naval officers, one Army and five ratings, were lost (Human torpedo attack)


TEMPEST (Lt Cdr W A K N Cavaye+), 13th February 1942, Central Mediterranean, off Gulf of Taranto, southern Italy in Ionian Sea (39.11N, 17.47E) - by depth charges of Italian torpedo boat 'Circe'. Sailed from Malta on 10th for Gulf of Taranto. Italians had been alerted by the torpedoing of a tanker by another submarine, ‘Tempest’ was located on the surface by an anti-submarine patrol, heavily depth-charged, brought to the surface and sank after attempts were made to tow her; 39 crew lost, 24 taken prisoner (Gulf of Taranto patrol)


TERRAPIN (Lt R H H Brunner), damaged 19th May 1945, East Indies, west of Batavia, Java in Java Sea - by depth charges of Japanese escort vessels. Attacking escorted tanker; no crew lost. Not repaired (Java Sea patrol)


THORN (Lt Cdr R G Norfolk+), 7th August 1942, Eastern Mediterranean, 30 miles from Gavdos Island off SW Crete - by depth charges of Italian destroyer escort 'Pegaso'. Attacking steamer ‘Istria’ sailing from Benghazi, spotted by escorting Ju.88 aircraft, depth-charged and believed sunk by ‘Pegaso’; all 60 crew lost (SW Crete patrol)


TRAVELLER (Lt Cdr D St Clair Ford+), around 4th December 1942, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Left Malta on 28th November for Gulf of Taranto patrol, including reconnoitre of Taranto harbour for Chariot human torpedo attack. Overdue on 8th December and presumed lost on Italian mines around the 4th December in her patrol area; all 65 crew lost (Gulf of Taranto patrol)


TROOPER (Lt J S Wraith+), possibly around 10th October 1943, Eastern Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Beirut on 26th September for patrol west of the Dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea, including the Leros area, and not heard from again. Failed to return on 17th October and presumed lost on German mines east of Leros around the 10th; all 64 crew lost (British Aegean Campaign patrol)


TURBULENT (Cdr J W ‘Tubby’ Linton+, awarded VC), possibly 12th-14th March 1943, Central Mediterranean, off Maddalena, NE Sardinia in Tyrrhenian Sea - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Algiers on 23rd February, not heard of again, cause of loss uncertain. Known to have attacked escorted ship on 11th March and possibly sunk next day by anti-submarine trawler ‘Teti II’. More likely mined in the same area between 12th and 14th, failed to return on 23rd; all 67 crew lost (Tyrrhenian Sea patrol)




HM S/M Turpin



76. 'U' & 'V' classes - Pre-war Programme, 3 boats - 540/730 tons, 11/10 knots, 6tt (1-3in ‘Ursula’ only), 27 crew, 1938, 2 lost: 

UNDINE (Lt Cdr A S Jackson), 7th January 1940, Western Europe, 20 miles SW of Heligoland Island off German North Sea coast - by depth charges of German minesweepers ‘M.1201’, ‘M.1204’ and ‘M.1207’. Attacking minesweepers, believed to be trawlers, while on Heligoland patrol. Forced to surface and scuttled; all 30 crew saved (German North Sea coast patrol)


UNITY (Lt J F Brooks), 29th April 1940, Western Europe off Blyth, NE England in North Sea (c55.15N, 01.15W) - collision in thick fog with Norwegian steamship 'Atle Jarle'. Sailing from Blyth for Norwegian patrol during the German invasion; four crew lost, 23 saved (Norwegian Campaign patrol)


Surviving boat - URSULA, (Russian 'V.4' from 1944)


HM S/M Undine pre-war



War Programmes - 68 boats completed by war's end - 540/740 tons, 11/10 knots, 1-12pdr or 3in/4tt, 30 crew, 1940-45, 17 lost: 

P.32 (Lt D A B Abdy), 18th August 1941, Central Mediterranean, off Tripoli, western Libya - by Italian mines. Sailed from Malta on 12th August for patrol off Tripoli, attacking Italian convoy heading into the port and hit mine; 30 crew lost, CO and one rating reached surface and taken prisoner (Tripoli patrol)


P.33 (Lt R D Whiteway-Wilkinson+), possibly 18th August 1941, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Left Malta on 6th August with orders to attack Libya-bound convoy, reported overdue on 23rd August and presumed lost on Italian mines in the Tripoli area. ‘P.32’ (lost herself) reported hearing heavy depth charge attack on the 18th, which may have accounted for ‘P.33’. Italians claim she was sunk by torpedo boat 'Partenope' off Pantelleria island on the 23rd; all 32 crew lost (Tripoli patrol)


P.36 (Lt H N Edmonds), 1st April 1942, Central Mediterranean, at Malta - by German or Italian bombers. In harbour after covering Alexandria/Malta convoy (believed MW.10) at time of Second Battle of Sirte, near-missed, holed and sank in Sliema Harbour; no crew lost (Malta convoys)


P.38 (Lt R J Hemingway+), 23rd February 1942, Central Mediterranean, east of Tripoli, western Libya (32.48N, 14.58E) - by Italian torpedo boat 'Circe' and destroyer 'Antonietta Usodimare'. Sailed from Malta on 16th February to intercept convoy off Tripoli. Preparing to attack, depth charged and sunk by the escort; all 32 crew lost (Tripoli patrol)


P.39 (Lt N Marriott), 26th March 1942, Central Mediterranean, at Malta - by German bombers. In harbour following a patrol in the area east of Tunisia. Previous bomb damage being repaired, alongside jetty, hit by bomb, badly damaged and beached. Not repaired (Defence of Malta)


P.48 (Lt M E Faber+), 25th December 1942, Central Mediterranean, northern Tunisia off Gulf of Tunis (c37.15N, 10.30E) - by depth charges of Italian destroyer escorts 'Ardente' and 'Ardito'. Sailed from Malta on 23rd December. Attacking Italian convoy making for Tunis; all 34 crew lost (Gulf of Tunis patrol)


UMPIRE (Lt M R G Wingfield), 19th July 1941, Western Europe, NW of Cromer, eastern England in North Sea (53.09N, 01.08E) - rammed in error by RN armed trawler 'Peter Hendriks'. Working up and on passage from Chatham to join 3rd Flotilla at Dunoon on the Clyde, sailing with northbound East Coast convoy EC.47, fell behind with engine problems as a southbound convoy approached, rammed by one of its escorts; 16 crew lost, 16 saved. One of the survivors was Sub Lt Edward Young, first RNVR officer to command a submarine.


UNBEATEN (Lt D E Watson+), 11th November 1942, North Atlantic, in Bay of Biscay (47.00N, 07.00W) - sunk in error by RAF Wellington. Sailed on 23rd October for patrol in Bay of Biscay with orders to intercept German blockade runner, ship reported on 6th November but not attacked, then failed to rendezvous back off Bishop Rock. Probably depth charged and sunk by the Wellington of 172 Sqn after being directed to a reported submarine; all 36 crew lost (Bay of Biscay patrol)


UNDAUNTED (Lt J L Livesay+), possibly 12th May 1941, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Malta on 1st May for patrol off Tripoli, western Libya, but failed to return on 11th May, presumed lost on mines. Italians claim she was sighted by an aircraft, then attacked and sunk by torpedo boat 'Pleiade' off Tripoli on the 12th after being detached from a nearby convoy; all 32 crew lost (Tripoli patrol)


UNION (Lt R M Galloway+), 20th July 1941, Central Mediterranean, 25 miles SW of Pantelleria island in Strait of Sicily - by Italian torpedo boat 'Circe'. Sailed from Malta to intercept a convoy off Tripoli the next day, attacked and lost in the counter-attack by ‘Circe’; all 32 crew lost (Strait of Sicily patrol)


UNIQUE (Lt R E Boddington+), possibly around 10th October 1942, eastern area of North Atlantic - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Carrying out Bay of Biscay patrol while on passage from Britain to Gibraltar. Reported off Lands End on the 9th, last contact was probably on the 10th, due to arrive at Gibraltar on the 22nd, but not heard from again. Cause of loss unknown, possibly drifting mine. Germans made no claims for attacks on a submarine at the times of her passage; all 34 crew lost (partly Bay of Biscay patrol)


UPHOLDER (Lt Cdr M D Wanklyn VC+), possibly 14th April 1942, Central Mediterranean, NE of Tripoli, western Libya (34.47N, 15.55E) - by depth charges of Italian destroyer escort 'Pegaso'. Sailed from Malta on 6th April, rendezvoused with submarine ‘Unbeaten’ on the 10th, then nothing more heard of her. Possibly attacked Italian convoy on the 14th and lost in the counter-attack by ‘Pegaso’. An alternative explanation for her loss is mined off Tripoli on the night of the 11th; all 32 crew lost (Tripoli patrol)


URGE (Lt Cdr E P Tomkinson+), possibly 29th April 1942, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. On passage from Malta to Alexandria at time of withdrawal of 10th Submarine Flotilla from the heavily bombed island. Sailed on 27th April, but failed to arrive on 6th May. Explanations for her loss include mining off Malta on the 28th or attacked by Italian destroyer escort ‘Pegaso’. More recent sources suggest sunk by Italian fighter-bombers off Ras el Hilal, near Derna, Libya on the 29th; 32 crew and 11 passengers lost (Defence of Malta)


USK (Lt G P Darling+), late April/early May 1941, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Malta on 19th April for patrol off NW Sicily and later the Cape Bon, Tunisia area in the Strait of Sicily. Last signal was possibly on the 25th and failed to return on 3rd May.  Explanations include mined in the Cape Bon area around the 28th, mined on the 3rd May, or sunk by Italian destroyers 'Pigafetta' and 'Zeno' on the 4th, west of Sicily during a convoy attack; all 32 crew lost (Italian NW Sicily patrol)


USURPER (Lt D R Mott+), around 3rd October 1943, Central Mediterranean - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Sailed from Algiers on 24th September for patrol off Spezia, ordered to Gulf of Genoa on 3rd October. Not heard from again, failed to answer signal on 11th October or return to Algiers on 12th. Probably sunk in the Gulf of Genoa by German anti-submarine vessel ‘UJ.2208’ on the 3rd, otherwise mined in same area; all 46 crew lost (Italian Gulf of Genoa patrol)


UTMOST (Lt J W Coombe+), 25th November 1942, Central Mediterranean, off NW Sicily in Tyrrhenian Sea (c36.30N, 12.00E) - by depth charges of Italian destroyer escort 'Groppo'. Sailed from Malta for patrol, attacked convoy on the 23rd, then on 25th while returning to Malta, depth charged and sunk by ‘Groppo’ off Marittimo island; all 33 crew lost (Italian NW Sicily patrol)


VANDAL (Lt J S Bridger+), 24th February 1943, Western Europe in Mull of Kintyre/Arran area, west coast of Scotland - 'overdue, presumed lost'. Left Holy Loch on the Clyde on 22nd for three-day working-up exercises in the Firth of Clyde. Sighted on 24th, north of Isle of Arran when she was due to carry out a deep dive and disappeared, cause of loss unknown; all 36 crew lost. Her wreck has since been found between Arran and the island of Inchmarnock.


Lost while manned by an Allied Navy - UREDD, Norwegian Navy, 24th February 1943, off Norway


Boats completed by war's end and surviving - P.47 (Dutch 'Dolfijn'), P.52 (Polish 'Dzik'), ULTIMATUM, ULTOR, UMBRA, UNA, UNBENDING, UNBROKEN (Russian 'V.2' from 1944), UNISON (Russian 'V.3' from 1944), UNITED, UNIVERSAL, UNRIVALLED, UNRUFFLED, UNRULY, UNSEEN, UNSHAKEN, UNSPARING, UNSWERVING, UNTIRING (Greek 'Amfitriti' from 1945), UPRIGHT, UPROAR, UPSHOT, UPSTART (Greek 'Xifias' from 1945), URCHIN (Polish 'Sokol'), URTICA, UTHER, VAGABOND, VAMPIRE, VARANGIAN, VARIANCE (Norwegian 'Utsira'), VARNE (Norwegian 'Ula'), VARNE (2), VELDT (Greek 'Pipinos'), VENGEFUL (Greek 'Delfin'), VENTURER, VIGOROUS, VIKING, VINEYARD (French 'Doris'(2)), VIRULENT, VIRTUE, VISIGOTH, VITALITY (ex-UNTAMED), VIVID, VOLATILE, VORACIOUS, VORTEX (French 'Morse' 2), VOTARY, VOX (French 'Curie'), VOX(2), VULPINE

HM S/M United 1944




77. 'A' class, 2 boats completed by war's end - 1,120/1,620 tons, 18/8 knots, 1-4in/10tt, 60 crew, 1945 

Boats completed - AMPHION, ASTUTE


HMS/M Alcide
completed post-war. One of the "A" class boats built for
long-range Pacific operations. Only two were completed by VJ-Day










78. ex-American 'R' class, 3 boats transferred 1941-42 - 570/680 tons, 14/10 knots, 1-3in/4tt, 30 crew, 1918, 1 lost:  

P.514 (Lt Cdr R Pain), 21st June 1942, North Atlantic off east coast of Newfoundland - rammed in error by Canadian minesweeping sloop 'Georgian'. Employed on anti-submarine training duties off Canadian east coast, sailed from Argentia on 20th on passage for St Johns. ‘Georgian’ was waiting to provide escort for a local convoy, and unaware of a friendly submarine in the area, rammed and sank ‘P.514’; all 43 crew lost (A/S Training Duties)


Surviving boats returned in 1944 - P.511, P.512



79. ex-American 'S' class, 6 boats transferred 1941-42 - 850/1,060 tons, 14/11 knots, 1-4in/4tt, 40 crew, 1919 

Lost while manned by an Allied Navy - JASTRZAB, Polish Navy, 2nd May 1942, Arctic


Surviving boats returned in 1944 – ‘P.552’, ‘P.553’, ‘P.554’, ‘P.555’, ‘P.556’ 



80. ex-Turkish boats, Building in Britain and acquired by British Navy, 4 boats - 680/860 tons, 14/10 knots, 1-3in/5tt, 35 crew, 1941-42, 1 lost: 

P.615 (Lt C W St C Lambert+), 18th April 1943, Central Atlantic Ocean, south of Freetown, Sierra Leone, West Africa (06.49N, 13.09W) – torpedoed by German ‘U.123’ (Schroeter). Believed on passage to South Atlantic Station for anti-submarine training duties, left Freetown on 17th for Takoradi under escort of motor minesweeper ‘MMS.107’; all 44 crew lost.


Surviving boats transferred to Turkey in 1942 and 1945 – ‘P.611’, ‘P.612’, ‘P.614’ 



81. ex-German & Italian boats, Captured and commissioned into British Navy, 4 boats - 570/680 tons, 14/10 knots, 1-3in/4tt, 30 crew, 1918, 1 lost: 

GRAPH (ex-German ‘U.570’), 20th March 1944, Western Europe, on Islay island, west coast of Scotland (55.48N, 6.27W) - driven aground and wrecked. On tow from Aberdeen to the Clyde for experimental purposes and broke adrift.


Surviving boats – ‘P.711’ (Italian 'Galileo Galilei' captured 19th June 1940), ‘P.712’ (Italian 'Perla' captured 9th July 1942, Greek 'Matrozos' from 1943), ‘P.714’ (Italian 'Bronzo' captured 12th July 1943, French 'Narval' from 1944)






 82. 'X' classes, X.3-X.10, X.20-X.25, XT.1-XT.6, XE.1-XE.9, XE.11-XE.12, 31 boats - c30/33t, 6/6 knots, 2-2 ton side charges, 4 crew, launched 1942-45, 8 lost. 

Miniature submarines with full diving capabilities, equipped with periscope etc. and able to drop side charges beneath the target after being towed to vicinity by ocean-going submarines. XT boats were for training and not equipped with side charges; XE boats were more habitable and designed for Far East operations. XE's also had a diving compartment to allow divers to leave the boat and attach limpet mines. On the 31st July 1945, XE.3 sank Japanese heavy cruiser ‘Takao’ in the Johore Strait off Singapore.


Six submarines sailed from Scotland on the 11th/12th September 1943, each with an X-craft in tow to attack the heavy German ships lying  in Altenfiord. All six midget submarines were lost:


X.9 (Sub Lt E V Kearon RNVR+), 16th September 1943, Northern Europe, Norwegian Sea – Sailing to attack battlecruiser ‘Scharnhorst’, dived and under tow by ‘Syrtis’. Failed to surface on the 16th, tow rope found parted; passage crew lost.


X.8 (Lt J Smart RNVR), 18th September 1943, Northern Europe, Norwegian Sea – Sailing to attack pocket battleship ‘Lützow’, under tow by ‘Sea Nymph’. Tow parted on 15th, but ‘found by towing submarine next day. Lt Smart, passage CO forced to jettison both charges on the 17th, and the mission had to be abandoned. ‘X.8’ scuttled on the 18th.


X.5 (Lt H Henty-Creer+), X.6 (Lt D Cameron RNR, awarded VC), X.7 (Lt G Place, awarded VC), 22nd September 1943, Northern Europe, Altenfiord, Norway - Lost in attack on German battleship ‘Tirpitz’ at anchor in Kaafiord. ‘X.6’ and ‘X.7’ laid their charges under or near ‘Tirpitz’ badly damaging her. Fate of ‘X.5’ is not known. No survivors from ‘X.5’, all saved from ‘X.6’, two saved and two lost from ‘X.7’.


X.10 (Lt K R Hudspeth RANVR), 3rd October 1943, Northern Europe, Norwegian Sea – Failed in attack on battlecruiser ‘Scharnhorst’ and withdrew. Taken in tow by submarine ‘Stubborn’ on 28th, tow broke on 3rd, gale warning received and ‘X.10’ scuttled.



X.22 (Lt B M MacFarlane RAN), 7th February 1944, Western Europe, Pentland Firth, off N Scotland – towing exercises with submarine ‘Syrtis’, ‘Syrtis’ manoeuvred to rescue officer overboard, rammed and sank ‘X.22’.


XE.11, March 1945, Western Europe, Loch Striven, Scotland – exercising, lost in collision with boom defence vessel.






83. 'Chariots' (losses in date order) – 1.6 tons, length 20ft, 3-4 knots, one bow charge with 590lb of Torpex, 2 crew, built from 1942, 28 lost: 

Electrically powered submersible with crew of two equipped with diving suits and breathing apparatus sitting astride the torpedo-shaped hull. Armed with detachable bow charge. Developed by the Italian Navy and nicknamed ‘Maiale’ or pig, their greatest triumph was the sinking of ‘Queen Elizabeth’ and ‘Valiant’ in Alexandria harbour on the 19th December 1941, although both British battleships were raised and put back into service. Design of the captured craft was developed by the British and named ‘Chariots’. 

No. VI and VIII, 31st October 1942, Western Europe, off Trondheimfiord, Norway - broke away in rough weather. Being towed below Norwegian fishing boat ‘Arthur’ on final approach for attack on German battleship ‘Tirpitz’ (Operation ‘Title’) in Fottenfiord well inside Trondheimfiord. Tow broke in bad weather; Charioteers on board ‘Arthur’ at the time.


No. X and XVIII, December 1942/January 1943, Central Mediterranean, Maddalena, Sardinia area - lost with submarine ‘P.311’. Being carried in watertight deck containers mounted on ‘T’ class submarine ‘P.311’ for attack on Italian cruisers at Maddalena, NE Sardinia (Operation ‘Principal’). See loss of ‘P.311’ above; all Charioteers lost.


No. XV, XVI, XIX, XXII and XXIII, 2nd/3rd January 1943, Central Mediterranean, Palermo, northwest coast of Sicily - scuttled. Launched from watertight deck containers on submarines ‘Thunderbolt’ (two Chariots) and ‘Trooper’ (three Chariots) for attack on Palermo Harbour – also part of Operation ‘Principal’. After two Chariots successfully penetrated the defences, charges were laid which severely damaged Italian light cruiser ‘Ulpio Traiano’ then being fitted out before completion and transport ‘Viminale’ early on the 3rd. The Palermo attack was part of the same operation, which led to the loss of ‘P.311’ and Chariots No.X and XVIII above.


No. XII and XIII, 19th January 1943, Central Mediterranean, Tripoli, Libya - scuttled. Two weeks after the Palermo attack, submarine ‘Thunderbolt’ carried two Chariots for an attack on Tripoli Harbour (Operation ‘Welcome’). The operation failed.


No. LII and LVII, 22nd November 1943, Western Europe, Norway - scuttled in heavy weather. Taking part in attack on German shipping in Norwegian fiords.


No. LVIII and LX, 21st/22nd June 1944, Central Mediterranean, La Spezia, NW Italy - scuttled. A joint British-Italian operation mounted from Italian destroyer ‘Grecale’ and MTB ‘MAS.74’, the Chariots were launched for an attack on Italian warships under German control in La Spezia harbour on the NW coast of Italy (Operation ‘QWZ’). Heavy cruiser ‘Bolzano’ had been torpedoed and damaged by submarine ‘Unbroken’ in 1942 and taken to La Spezia for repairs. Later plans to convert her to a cruiser-aircraft carrier came to nothing and she was captured when Italy surrendered. In the attack ‘Bolzano’ was sunk.


No. LXXIX and LXXX, 28th October 1944, South East Asia, Phuket, SW coast of Thailand in Andaman Sea - scuttled. Transported to Phuket by submarine ‘Trenchant’, penetrated harbour and sank transport ‘Sumatra Maru’, badly damaged another ship.


No. V, XXIX, XXXI and XXXIV, 1945, Western Europe, west Scotland. Loss reported in June 1945


No. XI, XIV, XVII, XX, XXI, XXIV and XXV, 1945, Central Mediterranean, Malta. Loss reported in June 1945 






84. Welman Craft, approximately 100 craft - weight 5,750lb with charge, length 20ft, 3 knots, 1 bow charge with 425lb of Torpex, 1 crew, built 1943, 5 lost. 

Small one-man operated submarines with limited range and no periscope. Navigated on the surface through window in small conning tower. Declared unsuitable for operations in late 1943 and scrapped 1944.


No.10 (Lt B Perdersen, Norwegian Army), 9th September 1943, Western Europe in Loch Cairnbawn (Locha Chairn Bhain) NW Scotland - by accident. Sank alongside depot ship Bonaventure.


No. 45, 46, 47 and 48, 22nd November 1943, Western Europe, Bergen, SW Norway - captured/scuttled by their crews. Carried by MTB's across the North Sea for attack on Bergen Harbour. Failed to reach target area with Welman 46 (Lt B Perdersen, Norwegian Army) captured by the Germans and the other three scuttled.

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