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U-boat under air attack (Maritime Quest, click to enlarge)

on to German U-boats,1945


Each Summary is complete in its own right. The same information may therefore be found in a number of related summaries

(for more ship information,  go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search)






7th - U-boats concentrated against UK/West and North African convoys, mainly to the west and southwest of Ireland, and eight were lost from all causes, but first the Royal Navy suffered a loss. As the 5th Escort Group swept to the west of Cape Finisterre, frigate "TWEED" was torpedoed and sunk by "U-305". Intense A/S activity further north saw "U-305" lost well before the month was out. 8th - "U-757" to frigate "Bayntun" and Canadian corvette "Camrose" of the 4th and 5th EGs escorting OS64/KM538. 13th - Northeast of the Azores "U-231" was lost to a RAF Leigh light Wellington. 15th - Off the Azores "U-377" was sunk by one of her own torpedoes. 17th - Back to the waters west of Ireland, and "U-305" was now sunk by destroyer "Wanderer" returning from a search for blockade runners. 19th - "U-641" attacked OS65 and KMS39 and went down to corvette "Violet" of the British B3 group. 28th - Operations against OS66/KMS40 led to the loss of "U-271" to a US Navy Liberator and "U-571" to a RAAF Sunderland flying boat - one of the famous "flying porcupines". West of Ireland "U-972" suffered the same "own-torpedo" fate as "U-377" two weeks earlier.

Russian Convoys - Escorting Russian convoy JW56B, destroyer "HARDY (2)" was torpedoed by "U-278" to the south of Bear Island on the 30th and had to be scuttled. On the same day destroyers "Whitehall" and "Meteor" of the escort sank "U-314". All 16 of JW56B's ships reached Kola Inlet. JW56A earlier in the month had not been so fortunate - of the 20 merchantmen, five returned due to the weather, and three were lost to U-boats.

Capt Walker's 2nd Escort Group - Capt Walker with sloops "Starling", "Kite", "Magpie", "Wild Goose" and "Woodpecker" accompanied by escort carriers "Activity" and "Nairana" arrived in the waters to the southwest of Ireland. Over the next three weeks the five sloops shared in the sinking of six U-boats operating against the convoys passing through the area. They started on the 31st when "Starling", "Magpie" and "Wild Goose" depth-charged "U-592" to destruction.

Battle of the Atlantic - Over the next five months U-boat losses were so heavy that by May 1944, North Atlantic operations had virtually ceased. In this period only 25 merchant ships were lost in the North and South Atlantic at a cost of 77 U-boats from all causes. At the same time the Allies were not so successful against them as they passed through the Bay of Biscay from French bases, the Northern Transit Area from Norway, and direct from Germany. Now equipped with 10cm radar detectors they only lost five of their number in the Bay, but in mid-May were badly hit by RAF Coastal Command off Norway. By then the whole complexion of the U-boat war near the shores of Europe changed with the invasion of Normandy.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 5 British, Allied and neutral ships of 36,000 tons in the Atlantic from all causes, 2 destroyers including one US off New York, and 1 frigate
- 14 U-boats including 2 by RAF and RAAF Bay of Biscay patrols; 1 by RAF-laid mine in Bay of Biscay; 1 by US escort carrier Guadalcanal off the Azores



Capt Walker's 2nd Escort Group continued - U-boat concentrations again suffered badly to the west and southwest of Ireland, and 10 boats were lost, all to the Royal Navy in exchange for a sloop and one straggler. Capt Walker's 2nd EG accounted for five, which added to the one on 31st January giave a record for U-boat sinkings in one patrol only equalled by the US destroyer escort "England" in the South West Pacific in May 1944. 8th - In support of convoys SL147/MKS38, Capt Walker in "Starling" together with "Kite", "Magpie", "Wild Goose" and "Woodpecker" shared in the sinking of "U-762". 9th - "Starling", "Kite", "Magpie", "Wild Goose" and "Woodpecker" now shared in the sinking of "U-734" and "U-238". 11th - Back to the southwest of Ireland, "Wild Goose" and "Woodpecker" hunted down "U-424" and destroyed her with depth charges. 19th - The 2nd EG, now supporting ON224 was attacked by "U-264". Brought to the surface by "Starling" and "Woodpecker", she was scuttled, the first of the schnorkel-equipped boats to be lost. 19th - As Capt Walker's Group looked for its seventh victim "WOODPECKER" lost her stern to an acoustic torpedo from "U-764". Towed slowly home, she sank on the 27th off the Scilly Islands.

Other supporting Escort Groups also had their successes in the month: 10th - West of Ireland, "U-666" was sunk by Swordfish of 842 Squadron from escort carrier "Fencer" in support of trans-Atlantic convoy ON223. 18th - Frigate "Spey" of the 10th EG with ONS29 sank "U-406". 19th - As the 10th EG transferred to convoy ON224 (2nd EG was also in support), "Spey" claimed another success with the sinking of "U-386". 24th - West of Ireland, "U-257" was sunk by Canadian frigate "Waskesiu" of the 6th EG with Halifax/UK convoy SC153. 25th - Further south "U-91" was lost to frigates "Affleck", "Gore" and "Gould" of the 1st EG carrying out an A/S patrol in support of the convoys in the vicinity.

Russian Convoys  (map below) - The 42 merchantmen of Russian convoy JW57 all reached Kola on the 28th, but one escort and two U-boats were sunk in the battles surrounding them: 24th - To the northwest of Norway, "U-713" was put down by destroyer "Keppel" of the escort. 25th - Next day, destroyer "MAHRATTA" was lost to an acoustic torpedo from "U-956" or "U-990" and sank with heavy loss of life. A RAF Catalina of No 210 Squadron flying at extreme range managed to sink "U-601".

Monthly Loss Summary
- 2 British, Allied and neutral ships of 12,000 tons in the Atlantic from all causes, 1 destroyer and 1 sloop
- 15 U-boats including 2 by RAF to the west of Scotland; 1 by US Navy aircraft off Ascension Island



20th - On patrol off Trevose Head, southwest England for a reported U-boat, destroyer "WARWICK" was torpedoed and sunk by "U-413" - the first enemy submarine to effectively penetrate British coastal waters since 1940.


18th - Royal Navy ships continued to suffer casualties during the Battle for Anzio. Returning to Naples, the seemingly indestructible cruiser "PENELOPE" was torpedoed and sunk by "U-410".

24th - In the Strait of Gibraltar, USN Catalina's equipped with the new magnetic anomaly detector (MAD) located "U-761" trying to break in to the Mediterranean. Destroyers "Anthony" and "Wishart" of the Gibraltar patrol sank her.

Indian & Pacific Oceans

14th - On patrol in the Malacca Strait, submarine "Tally Ho" had another success (the other was cruiser "Kuma" the month before) by sinking German ex-Italian submarine "UIt-23" bound for Europe with cargo from the Far East.

MARCH 1944


1st - The 1st Escort Group, last recorded five days earlier sinking "U-91" was now to the far southwest of Ireland, north of the Azores. Frigates "Affleck", "Gould", "Garlies" and "Gore" had already hunted a contact for 30hr when the second two ships had to leave for Gibraltar. Late on the 1st the tables were turned when "GOULD" was hit and sunk by a Gnat acoustic torpedo. That just left "Affleck" which located "U-358" and sent her to the bottom with depth charges and gunfire. At 38hr this was probably the longest continuous U-boat hunt of the war.

6th - In another long hunt lasting 30hr, the Canadian C2 group escorting Halifax/UK convoy HX280 sank "U-744" in mid-Atlantic. Canadian destroyers "Chaudiere" and "Gatineau", frigate "St Catherines", corvettes "Chilliwack" and "Fennel" and British destroyer "lcarus" were joined by corvette "Kenilworth Castle" before the action was over.

9th - Corvette "ASPHODEL" escorting West and North Africa/UK convoys SL150/MKS41 was torpedoed and sunk by "U-575" to the west of the Bay of Biscay. The U-boat was lost four days later.

10th - In an attack on Halifax/UK convoy SC154, "U-845" was sunk in mid-Atlantic by Canadian C1 group including destroyer "St Laurent", frigates "Owen Sound", "Swansea" and British destroyer "Forester".

13th - RAF Wellingtons flying from the Azores attacked "U-575" well to the north. She was finally sent to the bottom by the aircraft and ships of the US escort carrier "Bogue" task group and Canadian frigate "Prince Rupert" from nearby convoy ON227.

15th - In mid-Atlantic, Swordfish of 825 Squadron from escort carrier "Vindex" working with 2nd EG's "Starling" and "Wild Goose" sank "U-653" - Capt Walker's 13th kill.

25th -'Tsetse' Mosquitos of RAF Coastal Command armed with new 6pdr guns had their first success. On Bay of Biscay patrol one of them sank "U-976".

Russian Convoys - The next return convoy from Russia RA57, sailed with the escort of the February JW57 including escort carrier "Chaser" and her rocket-firing Swordfish of 816 Squadron. On the 4th, to the north west of Norway, they damaged "U-472" which was finished off by destroyer "Onslaught". In the next two days, in spite of foul weather, they destroyed "U-366" and "U-973". The 2nd EG moved from Atlantic convoys to support Russian convoy JW58. Two days after leaving Loch Ewe and by now off Iceland, "Starling" sank "U-961" on the 29th. More U-boats were lost before the convoy reached Russia early in April.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 8 British, Allied and neutral ships of 41,000 tons in the Atlantic from all causes, 2 escorts and 1 US destroyer off Iceland
- 17 U-boats including 1 by RCAF off Ireland; 4 by the aircraft and ships of USS Block Island off the Azores and Cape Verde Islands; 1 by unknown causes in the North Atlantic; 1 by SAAF off South Africa


20th - Royal Navy submarine "GRAPH" (the captured "U-570") broke her tow and ran aground on Islay Island off the west coast of Scotland.


10th - In operations against Allied shipping bound for Italy, three U-boats were lost together with one Royal Navy destroyer. On the 10th off Anzio, 'Hunts' "Blankney", "Blencathra", "Brecon" and "Exmoor" and US destroyer "Madison", sank "U-450". The same day south of Sardinia, anti-submarine trawler "Mull" sank "U-343". The destroyer and the third U-boat were sunk at the end of the month

16th - US Navy Catalinas used MAD to locate another U-boat in the Strait of Gibraltar on passage into the Mediterranean. Destroyer "Vanoc" and frigate "Affleck" were called up and accounted for "U-392".

30th - In support of Allied shipping bound for Italy, destroyers "Laforey", "Tumult" and 'Hunts' "Blencathra" and "Hambledon" located a U-boat north of Sicily. As the search proceeded, "LAFOREY" was torpedoed and sunk, but the remaining ships found and finished off "U-223".

APRIL 1944


Russian Convoys - Three days after 2nd EG sank "U-961" off Iceland, Russia-bound JW58 was to the northwest of Norway and the attacking U-boats lost three of their number. On the 1st an Avenger of 846 Squadron from escort carrier "Tracker" damaged "U-355" with rockets and destroyer "Beagle" completed the job. Next day - the 2nd - destroyer "Keppel" sank "U-360" with her ahead-throwing Hedgehog mortar. On the 3rd it was the turn of "U-288". A Swordfish, Wildcat and Avenger from "Tracker's" 846 and "Activity's" 819 Squadrons sent her to the bottom. Apart from one merchantman that was forced to return, all JW58's remaining 48 ships arrived at Kola on the 5th April.

6th - "U-302" sank two ships from Halifax/UK convoy SC156 to the northwest of the Azores before being destroyed by frigate "Swale" of the British B5 group.

8th - To the northwest of Cape Finisterre, sloops "Crane" and "Cygnet" of the 7th EG accounted for "U-962".

14th - North of the Azores "U-448" attacked escort carrier "Biter" but was detected by Canadian frigate "Swansea" of the 9th EG and sunk by her and sloop "Pelican" of the 7th.

19th - Norwegian submarine "Ula" working with the Home Fleet flotillas and on patrol off Stavanger, SW Norway sank "U-974".

Monthly Loss Summary
- 7 British, Allied and neutral ships of 48,000 tons in the Atlantic from all causes
- 16 U-boats including 2 by RAF in North Atlantic; 1 by RAF Bay of Biscay patrol; 6 by US Navy forces off America, Madeira, Cap Verde Islands and in North Atlantic.

Indian & Pacific Oceans

There were no merchant shipping losses in either the Indian or Pacific Oceans in April and May 1944

MAY 1944


Russian Convoys - Return Russian convoy RA59 (45 ships) was attacked by U-boats to the northwest of Norway. One ship was lost, but in return the Swordfish of 842 Squadron from "Fencer" sank three with depth charges - on the 1st, "U-277", and next day "U-674" and "U-959". The convoy arrived at Loch Ewe with the rest of the 44 ships on 6th May.

5th/6th - The 2nd and 5th EGs in the North Atlantic detected U-boats by HF/DF after the torpedoing of a US destroyer. "U-473" was found by 2nd EG (Capt Walker) and sunk on the 5th by "Starling", "Wren" and "Wild Goose". Next day it was the 5th EG's turn (Cdr Macintyre). Aircraft of 825 Squadron from escort carrier "Vindex" locate "U-765" and frigates "Aylmer", "Bickerton" and "Bligh" shared in her destruction.

6th - The US escort carrier "Block Island" group was again on patrol in the Atlantic off the Canaries and being directed to U-boats by the work of 'Ultra' and the Admiralty Tracking Room. On the 6th her aircraft and accompanying destroyer escorts sank "U-66". Then at the end of the month, the carrier was sunk.

7th - Canadian frigate "VALLEYFIELD", with a Canadian group escorting UK/North America convoy ONM234, was sunk off Cape Race, Newfoundland by "U-548".

29th - "BLOCK ISLAND" was torpedoed and sunk by "U-549" in the Canaries area, but her task group soon avenged the loss of their leader.

30th - Destroyer "Milne" sank "U-289" to the southwest of Bear Island in the Arctic.

Battle of the Atlantic - RAF Coastal Command and one of its Norwegian squadrons were particularly successful between the 16th and 27th against the U-boats passing through the Northern Transit Area off south and west Norway. In the space of 12 days, "U-240", "U-241", "U-476", "U-675", "U-990" and "U-292" were sunk.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 3 British, Allied and neutral ships of 17,000 tons in the Atlantic from all causes, 1 frigate and 1 US escort carrier
- 15 U-boats including 1 by RCAF Bay of Biscay patrol


4th - "U-371" attacked North Africa/US convoy GUS38 off Algeria on the 3rd and was detected, but damaged one of the escorting US destroyers. Throughout the night she was hunted by a mixed group of British, US and French warships including the 'Hunt' "Blankney", and this time managed to torpedo a French destroyer. Later on the 4th "U-371" was sunk northeast of Bougie.

15th - "U-731" on passage through the Strait of Gibraltar was detected by USN Catalinas and lost to attacks by patrol sloop "Kilmarnock" and trawler "Blackfly" of the Gibraltar patrol. No more U-boats made the attempt to get into the Mediterranean.

21st - U-boats gained their last success of the war in the Mediterranean. East of Sicily "U-453" attacked Taranto/Augusta convoy HA43 and its Italian escort and sank one merchant ship. Destroyers "Termagant", "Tenacious" and the 'Hunt' "Liddlesdale" were brought up and sent her to the bottom on the 21st.

Merchant Shipping War - U-boats had only managed to sink 10 merchantmen in the Mediterranean in the first five months of 1944. In return 15 had been lost, including three breaking through the Strait of Gibraltar and four in USAAF raids on Toulon and Pola.

Indian & Pacific Oceans

Merchant Shipping War - No Allied merchant ships were lost in April and May 1944 throughout the Indian Ocean, but 29 were sunk in the preceding three months, and by never more than six German and four Japanese submarines. In return only four boats including one transport submarine had been sunk. The last was "U-852" off the Gulf of Aden to RAF aircraft on 3rd May. 

DEFENCE OF TRADE - June 1943 to May 1944

Total Losses = 324 British, Allied and neutral ships of 1,733,000 tons (144,000 tons per month)

By Location


Number of British, Allied, neutral ships

Total Gross Registered Tonnage

North Atlantic


443,000 tons

South Atlantic

27 147,000 tons

UK waters


31,000 tons



550,000 tons

Indian Ocean


532,000 tons

Pacific Ocean


30,000 tons

By Cause

Causes* in order of tonnage sunk
(1., 4. ... - Order when weapon first introduced)

Number of British, Allied, neutral ships

Total Gross Registered Tonnage

1. Submarines


1,219,000 tons

4. Aircraft
2. Mines
6. Raiders
5. Other causes
7. Coastal forces
3. Warships


378,000 tons
55,000 tons
35,000 tons
20,000 tons
18,000 tons
8,000 tons

JUNE 1944


4th - Off West Africa, "U-505" was captured by the USS Guadalcanal and her task group. Later in the month, tanker "U-490" was sunk in mid-Atlantic by the ships and aircraft of the "Croatan" group and "U-360" in the South Atlantic by aircraft from "Solomons".

15th - Submarine "Satyr" on Arctic patrol torpedoed and sank "U-987" to the west of Narvik.

26th - Destroyer "Bulldog" on patrol off the northwest coast of Ireland sank "U-719".

Battle of the Atlantic - U-boats passing through the Bay of Biscay were the target for aircraft covering the Normandy invasion, and also continued to suffer badly at the hands of the aircraft of the Northern Transit Area patrol. Throughout the month, seven were sunk and one severely damaged by RAF, RCAF and Norwegian aircraft. In the case of "U-1225" to the northwest of Bergen on the 24th, the attacking Canadian Canso (or Catalina) was badly hit and crashed but not before sinking her.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 3 British, Allied and neutral ships of 7,000 tons in the Atlantic from all causes
- 13 U-boats excluding those sunk in Bay of Biscay


6th - Normandy Invasion: Operation 'Overlord' - Aircraft of Coastal Command and Escort Groups of the RN and RCN on patrol at the west end of the English Channel and its approaches were ready for any attempt by U-boats to reach the Normandy ships and landing craft numbering well over 5,000. Only schnorkel-equipped boats dared try, and the few that did had little success. In June they lost 12 of their number: off the Channel, aircraft sank five including "U-629" and "U-373" in one day - the 8th - to one RAF Liberator of No 224 Squadron (Flg Off K. Moore). Two more went down in the Bay of Biscay as they returned from Atlantic patrol. Warships accounted for the remaining five, but two frigates were sunk and other escorts severely damaged: 15th - Frigate "BLACKWOOD" was torpedoed off Brittany by "U-764" and sank in tow off Portland Bill. 15th - Frigate "MOURNE" was sunk by "U-767" off Land's End. 18th - Three days after sinking "Mourne", "U-767" was caught off the Channel Islands by destroyers "Fame", "Havelock" and "Inconstant" of 14th EG and sent to the bottom. 24th - Destroyers "Eskimo" and Canadian "Haida" of 10th Flotilla, together with a Czech Wellington of No 311 Squadron, sank "U-971" off Ushant. 25th - Two U-boats were lost off Start Point in the English Channel - "U-1191" to frigates "Affleck" and "Balfour" of the 1st EG, and "U-269" to "Bickerton" (Capt Macintyre) of the 5th EG. 27th/29th - Two days after badly damaging corvette "PINK" (constructive total loss) on the 27th and sinking two merchantmen, "U-988" was caught and sunk off the Channel Islands by frigates "Cooke", "Domett", "Duckworth" and "Essington" of 3rd EG and a RAF Liberator of No 224 Squadron.

Monthly Loss Summary (now that U-boats were operating off British shores)
19 British, Allied and neutral ships of 75,000 tons in UK waters.  

JULY 1944


FAA attacks on "Tirpitz" - Barracuda torpedo bombers from Home Fleet carriers "Formidable", "Indefatigable" and "Furious" attempted to hit "Tirpitz" in Altenfiord on the 17th, but failed, partly because of defensive smokescreens. U-boats were sent to attack the carrier force, but over a period of four days, RAF Coastal Command sank three in the Northern Transit Area. The RAF also sank a fourth U-boat off southwest Norway.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 4 British, Allied and neutral ships of 29,000 tons in the Atlantic from all causes
- 7 U-boats including one each by task groups of US escort carriers "Wake Island", "Croatan" and "Card" off the Canaries, Madeira and Nova Scotia respectively


U-boat Operations against the Normandy Beachhead - Those U-boats that did get through the Channel defences sank and damaged a number of ships, but six were lost to warship patrols: 5th - After attacking a convoy off Normandy, "U-390" was sunk by destroyer "Wanderer" and frigate "Tavy". 6th - In a convoy attack off Beachy Head, "U-678" was lost to Canadian destroyers "Ottawa" and "Kootenay" and British corvette "Statice". 18th - Frigate "Balfour" on patrol southeast of Start Point sank "U-672". 21st - Escorting frigates "Curzon" and Ekins" sank "U-212" off Beachy Head. 26th - As "U-214" tried to lay mines off Start Point, she was sunk by frigate "Cooke" of the 3rd EG. 31st - "U-333" was destroyed to the west of the Scilly Islands by sloop "Starling" and frigate "Loch Killin" of the 2nd EG using the new Squid. This marked the first success with this ahead-throwing A/S weapon which fired three large mortar bombs. Three more U-boats were sunk in the Bay of Biscay; one each to RAF and RAAF aircraft and the third mined off Brest. Allied air raids on Germany were also becoming more effective and four more were destroyed at Kiel and Bremen.

Monthly Loss Summary
8 British, Allied and neutral ships of 19,000 tons in UK waters.



Attacks on Tirpitz and Russian Convoy JW59 - Russian convoy JW59 (33 ships) left Loch Ewe on the 15th with a heavy escort. Home Fleet sailed in two groups, partly to cover the convoy but mainly to launch further FAA attacks on "Tirpitz" in Altenfiord. One group included "Formidable", "Indefatigable" and "Furious" and battleship "Duke of York"; the second, escort carriers "Trumpeter" and the Canadian-manned "Nabob" together with the 5th EG (Cdr Macintyre). Between the 22nd and 29th, three strikes were made and although a hit was obtained on the 24th, the bomb failed to explode. In the course of these manoeuvres the escort carrier group suffered two casualties: 22nd - "U-354" encountered them to the northwest of North Cape and attacked. Frigate "BICKERTON" of the 5th EG was torpedoed, badly damaged, and finished off by destroyer "Vigilant". Escort carrier "NABOB" was too badly damaged by her torpedo hit to be repaired. The U-boat was shortly sunk. The convoy, JW59 was also subjected to U-boat attack and losses were sustained by both sides: 21st - Sloop "KITE" of the 22nd EG was torpedoed by "U-344" to the northwest of Norway in the Greenland Sea and went down. There were few survivors, but the attacker, like "U-354" was also shortly sunk. 24th - As "U-344" tried to approach the convoy to the north of North Cape, she was sunk by destroyer "Keppel", frigate "Loch Dunvegan" and sloops "Mermaid" and "Peacock" of the 20th EG (both sister-ships of "Kite" so recently lost to "U-344's" attack). 25th - "U-354" now prepared for the arrival of return convoy RA59A in the Bear Island area and was destroyed by a rocket-firing Swordfish of 825 Squadron from "Vindex". (Note: Some sources reverse the cause of loss of "U-344" and "U-354", but with "U-344" sunk on the 22nd and "U-354" on the 24th.) JW59 arrived at Kola Inlet on the 25th with all 33 merchant ships.


British Convoy Routes - As the German Biscay bases became untenable for U-boats, the South Western Approaches to the British Isles were opened to Allied convoys for the first time in four years. West and North Africa/UK convoys SL167 and MKS58 were the first to benefit from the shortened journey.

U-boat Operations - U-boats passing through the Bay of Biscay and operating in the Channel and its approaches suffered badly at the hands of the air and sea patrols and escorts. However, the Royal Canadian Navy lost two corvettes: 4th - Escort destroyer "Wensleydale" and frigate "Stayner" on patrol off Beachy Head, sank "U-671" shortly after she sailed from Boulogne. 6th - The 2nd Escort Group had a hand in three sinkings (1-3) in the Bay of Biscay. On the 6th, to the west of St Nazaire, frigate "Loch Killin" and sloop "Starling" used the new Squid A/S mortar again to account for "U-736" (1). The other two attacks were carried out off La Rochelle. 8th - Canadian corvette "REGINA" was sunk off Trevose Head, north Cornwall by "U-667" as she escorted Bristol Channel convoy EBC66. The U-boat was lost on mines off La Pallice later in the month. 10th - In the second sinking by 2nd EG, "U-608" (2) was lost to sloop "Wren" and aircraft of No 53 Squadron. 11th - 2nd EG's "Starling" working with RAAF aircraft of No 461 Squadron accounted for "U-385" (3). 14th - West of St Nazaire, "U-618" was sunk by RAF aircraft of No 53 Squadron, this time with 3rd EG frigates "Duckworth" and "Essington". 15th - Attacking a convoy to the south of the Isle of Wight, "U-741" was sunk by corvette "Orchis". 18th/20th - Canadian destroyers "Chaudiere", "Kootenay" and "Ottawa" of the 11th EG sank "U-621" on the 18th off La Rochelle and "U-984" two days later to the west of Brest. 20th - After sinking one merchantman from a convoy off Beachy Head, "U-413" was counter-attacked and lost to destroyers "Forester", "Vidette" and escort destroyer "Wensleydale". 21st/22nd - Off the Isle of Wight, "U-480" sank Canadian corvette "ALBERNI" on the 21st and British fleet minesweeper "LOYALTY" next day. 24th - As most of the U-boats evacuated the Biscay bases and headed for Norway, frigate "Louis" on patrol off St Nazaire sank "U-445". Throughout the month a total of 21 U-boats had been lost in and around French waters. Apart from "U-667" which sank "Regina" on the 8th, one more was mined in the Bay of Biscay, three were lost to RAF and RAAF Bay patrols, and six more were scuttled or paid off in their Biscay bases.

Monthly Loss Summary
12 British, Allied and neutral ships of 55,000 tons in UK waters.

Indian & Pacific Oceans

12th - An escort carrier task group was formed to hunt for German and Japanese submarines operating in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. "U-198" was located on the 10th and two days later, sunk off the Seychelles by frigate "Findhorn" and Indian sloop "Godavari".



Russian Convoys - Return Russian convoy RA59A (nine ships) was now off northwest Norway when "U-394" was damaged by Swordfish of 825 Squadron and sunk on the 2nd by destroyers "Keppel" and "Whitehall" and sloops "Mermaid" and "Peacock". The convoy arrived safely at Loch Ewe on the 6th. The next convoy returning from Russia, RA60 left Kola on the 28th with 30 ships, but by the time it arrived at Loch Ewe in early October had lost two merchantmen to U-boat attack. While still to the northwest of Norway on the 30th, Swordfish of 813 Squadron from escort carrier "Campania" sank "U-921".

Monthly Loss Summary
- 3 British, Allied and neutral ships of 17,000 tons in the Atlantic from all causes, 1 US destroyer in a hurricane off Bahamas
- 7 U-boats including 1 cause unknown and 1 mined off Iceland; 1 by RAF off the Azores; 1 by US Navy off Cape Verde Islands; 1 by US aircraft in South Atlantic  


U-boat Inshore Campaign - With the start of the British Isles Inshore Campaign, U-boats sunk off Norway and in the Western Approaches as well as the Bay of Biscay are included in the European theatre. The same applies to the Allied and German surface warships lost.

1st - On passage into the Bristol Channel as part of the U-boat Inshore Campaign, "U-247" was sunk close to Lands End by patrolling Canadian frigates "St John" and "Swansea" of the 9th EG.

1st - Two U-boats were sunk in the North Western Approaches in attacks on Atlantic convoys in exchange for a corvette and several merchantmen. On the 1st, off the northwest Irish coast, "U-482" attacked Caribbean/UK tanker convoy CU36 and sank "HURST CASTLE" of the British B1 group with an acoustic torpedo. Just over a week later the two U-boats were lost.

9th - Northwest of Ireland, "U-743" was sunk near UK/North America convoy ONF252 by escorting frigate "Helmsdale" and corvette "Portchester Castle". Off the south Hebrides "U-484" went down to attack by Canadian frigate "Dunver" and corvette "Hespeler" of C5 group. Later in the month, RAF aircraft sank two more in the Northern Transit Area.

Monthly Loss Summary
3 British, Allied and neutral ships of 21,000 tons in UK waters.


End of the Mediterranean U-boats - The last U-boats in the Mediterranean were lost to sea and air attack. On the 19th schnorkel-equipped "U-407" was sunk north of Crete by destroyers "Terpischore", "Troubridge" and the Polish "Garland" of Adm Troubridge's escort carrier and cruiser force. Five days later in raids on Salamis near Athens, USAAF aircraft sank "U-596" and the damaged "U-565". Since June 1944 the other eight surviving U-boats had all been lost at Toulon, either by USAAF raids or through scuttling. In three years the comparatively few German U-boats in the Mediterranean had inflicted heavy losses on the Royal Navy including: 1 battleship, 2 aircraft carriers, 4 cruisers and a cruiser-minelayer, 12 destroyers. In return 68 German U-boats had been lost from all causes.

Indian & Pacific Oceans

23rd - Submarine "Trenchant" on patrol off Penang in the Malacca Strait sank "U-859" arriving from operations in the Indian Ocean.



Monthly Loss Summary
- For the first time since September 1939, no merchant ships were lost throughout the length and breadth of the North and South Atlantic in October 1944
- 1 U-boat in the North Atlantic due to schnorkel defect.


16th - Outward bound from Norway, "U-1006" was located by the patrolling 6th EG south of the Faeroes and sunk by Canadian frigate "Annan".

27th - During Home Fleet operations against German shipping off Norway, aircraft of 1771 Squadron from fleet carrier "Implacable" drove "U-1060" ashore near Namsos. She was finished off two days later by aircraft of Nos 311 (Czech) and 502 Squadrons RAF. Earlier in the month four more U-boats were lost in RAF raids on Bergen and another three by accident in Norwegian waters.

Monthly Loss Summary
2 British, Allied and neutral ships of 1,700 tons in UK waters



25th - Canadian corvette "SHAWINIGAN" on passage alone off the southwest tip of Newfoundland was torpedoed and sunk by "U-1228". Schnorkel-equipped U-boats were still capable of disrupting Allied shipping in distant waters.


11th - On Arctic patrol off the Lofoten Islands, submarine "Venturer" sank "U-771" heading home for Narvik from operations in northern waters.

11th - South of Ireland "U-1200" was sunk by patrolling corvettes "Kenilworth Castle", "Launceston Castle", "Pevensey Castle" and "Portchester Castle", then supporting Halifax/UK convoy HX317.

25th - On passage out to the North Atlantic, "U-322" was sunk west of the Shetlands by a Norwegian Sunderland of No 330 Squadron and patrolling frigate "Ascension".

Monthly Loss Summary
3 British, Allied and neutral ships of 9,000 tons in UK waters.



Russian Convoys - Return Russian convoy RA62 (28 ships) prepared to leave Kola Inlet on the 10th with the escort of JW62. Beforehand on the 9th, Royal Navy and Russian warships drove off the waiting U-boats, and corvette "Bamborough Castle" serving with the 8th and 20th EGs sank "U-387". As the convoy passed Jan Mayen Island on the 13th, "U-365" was sent to the bottom by Swordfish of 813 Squadron flying from escort carrier "Campania". All merchantmen reach Loch Ewe on the 19th.

27th - "U-877" encountered Halifax/UK convoy HX327 to the northwest of the Azores and was sunk by Canadian corvette "St Thomas" of the C3 group.

Monthly Loss Summary
- 1 merchant ship of 5,000 tons in the Atlantic
- 3 German U-boats


British Isles Inshore Campaign - The inshore campaign by U-boats gained some successes including two frigates, but four were lost: 6th - Frigate "BULLEN" of the 19th EG was sunk off the north coast of Scotland by an acoustic torpedo from "U-775". On the same day in the same area, frigates "Goodall" and "Loch lnsh" also with 19th EG, accounted for "U-297". 17th - Attacking a convoy off the south coast of Ireland, "U-400" was sunk by escorting frigate "Nyasaland". 18th - "U-1209" ran aground near Lands End at the far tip of SW England and was wrecked. 26th - Frigate "CAPEL" of the 1st EG on patrol off Cherbourg was lost to "U-486". 30th - Allied aircraft now had few successes against the schnorkel-equipped U-boats. An exception was "U-772" lost off Portland Bill to a RCAF Leigh Light Wellington of No 407 Squadron. In Norwegian waters one U-boat was lost in a RAF raid and another by collision off the Lofoten Islands.


on to German U-boats,1945
to Campaigns of World War 2

revised 9/7/11