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World War 1 at Sea - Naval Battles in outline

 

DARDANELLES and GALLIPOLI CAMPAIGNS - 1915-1916

 

Part 1 - Naval Campaign in Outline

Battleship HMS Irresistible sinking 18 March 1915
(Pat Gariepy
, click to enlarge)

on to Part 2 - London Gazette Despatches

 
 

Contents

 

in 5 parts:
1. Naval Campaign in Outline
2. London Gazette Despatches
3. Royal Navy Casualties - February to June 1915
4. Royal Navy Casualties - from July 1915
5. Royal Navy Honours and Gallantry Awards

 

Royal Navy Battle Honour - DARDANELLES 1915-16

 

 


 

Links to

 

relevant chapters from "History of the Great War - Naval Operations", Volume 2 only

 

Volume 2 by Corbett

 

Chapters III, VI, VIII

III. Home Waters, December 18 to January 18 — Further Precautions against Invasion — Loss of the Formidable — Prevision of the War Plan — Belgium and the Dardanelles

VI. Abandonment of the offensive in Belgium and Final Decision to Attack the Dardanelles — January 28

VIII. Salonica and the Dardanelles — Modification of the Plan — First Allocation of Troops — February 9 to 16 — Situation In Home Waters — Neutral Objection to the " Blockade " and German Threat of Retaliation

 

Chapters IX-XIII 

IX. The Dardanelles — Opening of the Naval Attack and the Question of Military Support

X. The Dardanelles — Resumption of the Bombardment and the First Landings — February 25 to March 4

XI. The Dardanelles — First Attack on the Narrows and the Smyrna Operations — March 5 to 10

XII. The Dardanelles — Further Development of the Plan — Decision to Use the XXIXth Division — Orders to Attack the Narrows — End of the Smyrna Operations — March 10 to 17

XIII. The Dardanelles — Failure of the Attack on the Narrows and the Change of Plan — March 18 to 24

 

Chapters XVI-XIX

XVI. The Dardanelles — Organisation of the Combined Attack — March 28 to April 25

XVII. The Dardanelles — Landing of the Expeditionary Force, April 25

XVIII. The Dardanelles — The Initial Advance April 26 to 28, and the First Battle of Krithia

XIX. The Dardanelles — the First Reinforcements and the Second Battle of Krithia — April 28 to May 8

 

including plans, right

 

Vol 3 Chapters to be added

 

 


 

 

also Log Books (years in brackets) of British warships taking part in some or all of the 1915/16 Campaign:

Albion, battleship, 1914-15

Amethyst, light cruiser, 1915-19

Colne, destroyer, 1914-19

Dartmouth, light cruiser, 1913-15, 1919-20

Euryalus, cruiser, 1915-17

Goliath, battleship, 1915

Inflexible, battlecruiser, 1914-15

Kennet, destroyer, 1914-15

Minerva, light cruiser, 1914-18

Ribble, destroyer, 1913-19

Sapphire, light cruiser, 1914-18

Usk, destroyer, 1913-19

Vengeance, battleship,1914-16

 

Log books not yet available online  - Click here to check their status

 

Ark Royal, aircraft carrier, 1914-20

Ben My Chree, aircraft carrier, 1915-16

Blenheim, cruiser, 1914-17

Canopus, battleship,1913-15

Chatham, light cruiser, 1915-16, 1920-24

Glory, battleship,1914-18

Grafton, cruiser, 1915-18

Hibernia, battleship,1915-16

Implacable, battleship,1914-16

Jed, destroyer, 1914-17

Welland, destroyer, 1914-18

     

 

Naval Operations


Volume 2 Maps

 

(click to enlarge plans or follow links to text)



The Dardanelles, Plan No 4 (9.5Mb)

 


The Approaches to the Dardanelles

 


The Dardanelles, Bombardment of February 19th, 1915

 


Dardanelles, Bombardment of February 25th, 1915

 


The Dardanelles, the Attack on the Narrows

 


Gallipoli, the Southern Beaches

 

 

 

 

 


Volume 3 Maps

 

(Volume 3 text to be added)

 

Operations against Suvla: The Landings of the XIth Division

 

Suvla Beach, at the date of evacuation

 

Tekke "W" Beach, Gallipoli, at the date of evacuation

 

Helles "V" Beach, at the date of evacuation

 

from Map Case

 

Sea of Marmara, No.3

 

The Torpedoing of H.M.S. "Triumph", No.4

 

 Operations in the Aegean, No.5

         

 

 

 

Part 1 - NAVAL CAMPAIGN IN OUTLINE

 

 

1914

 

 

Monday 10 August 1914

 

German battlecruiser Goeben and light cruiser Breslau entered the Dardanelles, and shortly played a part in bringing Turkey into the war

 

 

Thursday 29 October 1914

 

German-Turkish naval forces bombarded Russian ports, Turkey entered war on German side

 

 

Saturday 31 October

 

Admiralty authorised hostilities against Turkey although war had not yet been declared

 

 

Monday 2 November 1914

 

Russia declared war on Turkey

 

 

Tuesday, 3 November 1914

 

In advance of a declaration of war, an Anglo-French Squadron bombarded the Turkish outer forts, British battlecruisers Indefatigable, Indomitable and French battleships Suffren, Vιritι took part

 

 

Thursday, 5 November 1914

 

Britain and France declared war on Turkey, Britain annexed Cyprus

 

 

Sunday 13 December 1914

 

Lt Norman Douglas Holbrook (CO, HM S/M B.11) sank Turkish guardship/old battleship Messudiyeh in the Dardanelles. He was awarded the Victoria Cross.

 

 

1915

 

 

January 1915

Russians asked the Allies to take Turkish pressure off their forces in the Caucasus. First Lord of the Admiralty, Winston Churchill gained support of the War Council for a naval attack on the Dardanelles. By the end of January, Admiralty was directed to bombard and take Gallipoli with Constantinople as its objective, but no troops were to be made available.

Thursday 28 January 1915

British Government agreed to naval attack on the Dardanelles

 

 

Friday, 19 February 1915

 

First Bombardment of Outer Dardanelles Forts

 

 

Vengeance (above - PhotoShips), battleship, Canopus-class, 14,300t, 4-12in/12-6in/12-12pdr/4-18in tt, 8th BS Channel Fleet 8/14, later to Mediterranean. The bombardment of the defences around Cape Helles on the European side and Kum Kale/Orkanie on the Asiatic was initially carried out by battlecruiser Inflexible (flag, Adm Carden, C-in-C), battleships Albion, Cornwallis, Triumph, the French Suffren (French flag) and Bouvet, supported by French Suffren and light cruiser Amethyst. Vengeance (division flag, Adm de Robeck) observed for her division, and the force was later joined by dreadnought Queen Elizabeth and battleship Agamemnon. Vengeance fired at and was fired on by Orkanie batteries on Asiatic side, not hit but spars and rigging damaged by four near misses, Cornwallis was slightly less damaged.

  

 

Saturday 20 February 1915

 

Second planned Dardanelles bombardment to complete the destruction of the outer forts was cancelled because of gale-force conditions -  accurate gunlaying was not possible and spotting aircraft could not fly. The bad weather continued until the 25th

 

 

Tuesday 23 February 1915

 

Royal Marines occupied the Greek island of Lemnos, off the Dardanelles; the harbour of Mudros became a major advanced Allied base

 

 

Thursday 25 February 1915

  

Second Bombardment of Outer Dardanelles Forts

 

Second bombardment resumed after delays due to bad weather. Runs were made by battleships Vengeance and Cornwallis, French Suffren and Charlemagne, supported by anchored dreadnought Queen Elizabeth, battleships Agamemnon, Irresistible and French Gaulois. Fired was opened around around 1015, but within a short time, Agamemnon was hit:

 

 

Agamemnon (above - Maritime Quest), battleship, Lord Nelson-class, 17,680t, 4-12in/10-9.2in/24-12pdr/5-18in tt, 5th BS Channel Fleet 8/14, later to Mediterranean, anchored about 2½m WSW of Cape Yeni Shehr on Asiatic side. Cape Helles batteries opened fire at 1017 at 10,000yds and straddled her after 15min, ordered to weigh but within 10min hit by seven armour piercing shells, most of which broke up, but holed above waterline, hydraulic engine and main derrick damaged; 3 ratings killed, one DOW and four seriously injured. Cleared up wreckage, continued in action and repaired damage off Tenedos next day (Rn/Cn/D/da/dk)

 

By 1500 the outer batteries had been practically silenced by the Anglo-French ships. Minesweeping trawlers escorted by destroyers and covered by battleships Vengeance, Albion and Triumph then started sweeping the entrance. At 1600 the rest of the fleet retired to Tenedos. By 2000 the sweepers had penetrated four miles without finding any mines.

 

 

Friday 26 February 1915

  

Battleships Albion, Triumph and Majestic entered the Straits at 0800 to complete the destruction of the entrance forts and to attack the defences further inside, Albion along the European or north shore, Majestic along the Asiatic or south. Both soon came under fire which they returned, but as the day progressed the fixed shore guns were joined by concealed and mobile howitzer and field gun batteries and only by constantly shifting their positions could the two battleships avoid serious damage, that is until Majestic was hit. They were recalled at 1600:

 

Majestic, battleship, Majestic-class, c16,000t, 4-12in/12-6in/18-12pdr/5-18in tt, 7th BS Channel Fleet 8/14, later to Mediterranean, now with howitzer mounted on each of her turrets. Holed below waterline and leaking (Rn/Cn/D/da/vc)

 

Before then, at 1430, Royal Marine covering and Royal Navy demolition parties were landed near the entrance forts to complete their destruction, men from Irresistible on the European side, and from Vengeance on the Asiatic side covered by battleship Cornwallis, light cruiser Dublin and destroyers Racoon and Basilisk. The missions were successfully carried out with some casualties; Lt-Cdr Eric Gascoigne Robinson who led the Vengeance demolition party was awarded the Victoria Cross for his gallantry under fire. He later took part in the successful destruction of stranded submarine E.15.

 

 

Monday 1 March 1915

  

Battleships Albion and Ocean, Canopus-class, 14,300t, 4-12in/12-6in, Triumph, Swiftsure-class, 11,985t, 4-10in/14-7.5in, and Majestic, Majestic-class, c16,060t, 4-12in/12-6in, taking part in the second attack within the Dardanelles after more delays due to the weather. Albion and Triumph to engage Fort Dardanos, Ocean and Majestic to search for mobile guns. All ships engaged by concealed guns, continually hit sometimes by 4in howitzers but not seriously; 1 officer and 4 men in Albion injured by splinters (Rn/Cn/D/da)

 

That night the trawlers started sweeping towards Kephez Point, escorted by destroyers Basilisk, Grasshopper, Racoon and Mosquito supported by light cruiser Amethyst. Just short of the first line of mines at 2300 they were illuminated by searchlights, subjected to heavy fire by the minefield protection guns, and forced to withdraw under cover of the supporting ships.

 

 

Tuesday 2 March 1915

  

Battleships Canopus, Canopus-class, 14,300t, 4-12in/12-6in, Cornwallis, Duncan-class, c15,000t, 4-12in/12-6in and Swiftsure, Swiftsure-class, 11,800, 4-10in/14-7.5in, taking part in third attack within the Straits. Opened fire on Fort Dardanos at 1420 which did not reply until 1615 but immediately straddled the ships. Canopus hit on quarter-deck wrecking wardroom, another shell carried away main topmast, and a third went through after funnel and wrecked two boats, all ships received minor damage; one man slightly wounded. Weather remained bad making aerial reconnaissance impossible, and again that night the minesweeping trawlers were driven back. However further landings were made by beach and demolition parties around Cape Helles and Kum Kale on the 3rd and 4th (Rn/Cn/D/da)

 

 

Thursday 4 March 1915

 

Landings by beach and demolition parties around Kum Kale resulted in a number of Royal Navy and Royal Marine casualties, including two ratings killed from battleship Lord Nelson, one from battleship Ocean, and 23 Marines from the Plymouth Battalion of the Royal Naval Division. Others died of wounds (dk)

 

 

Friday 5 March 1915

 

Phase 1 of the Dardanelles Campaign had been successful with the outer defences destroyed, beach and demolition parties landed, little damage to the bombarding ships, and few casualties. Now Adm Carden was ready for Phase 2 - sweeping the minefields, believed to consist of ten lines of mines starting 8 miles inside the entrance and reducing the gun and other defences right up to the Narrows. For the latter, naval forces included 14 British and 4 French capital ships and four British light cruisers, but the only minesweepers were eight slow trawlers.

 

 

Queen Elizabeth, dreadnought (above, rebuilt and in World War 2 - CyberHeritage), Queen Elizabeth-class, 31,500t, completed January 1915, 8-15in/16-6in, taking leading part in first bombardment of the inner defences, anchored in the Aegean 2½m W of Gaba Tepe and firing over the Gallipoli peninsula at the Narrows forts, spotting by seaplanes and battleship Albion within the Straits. Turks brought up mobile field guns and howitzers, mainly 12pdrs and hit her 17 times, no serious damage (Rn/Cn/D/da)

 

 

Saturday 6 March 1915

  

Queen Elizabeth continued indirect fire across the peninsula with Albion spotting, while Agamemnon and Lord Nelson entered the straits to carry out their attacks on the Narrows forts:

 

Majestic, battleship, Majestic-class, covering Albion while she spotted. Hit by a heavy shell from Messudieh Fort (Rn/Cn/D)

 

Agamemnon and Lord Nelson, battleships, Lord Nelson-class, c17,700t, 4-12in/10-9.2in, nicknamed "Aggie" and "Nellie", covered by the French battleship division, opened fire about 1230 on the powerful Chanak forts. Agamemnon soon hit on armour by 6in shell, at 1300 on quarterdeck apparently by 14in shell which blew a great hole, wrecked the wardroom and gunroom and drove splinters through the foretop, followed by two more heavy shells. As both ships continued to come under intense fire from many batteries, both were hit several times from 1400 on, rigging and upper works damaged. Agamemnon hit by a total of 8 heavy shells, Lord Nelson by 7 including one which hit her armour below the waterline, flooded two bunkers and also sent splinters into her conning tower; Capt McClintock and two crew wounded by the splinters. Both ships returned to Tenedos, and next day Lord Nelson left for Mudros and the repair ships there (Rn/Cn/D/da)

 

 

Sunday 7 March 1915

  

Dublin, light cruiser, Chatham-class, 6,000t, 8-6in/4-3pdr/2-21in tt, in Gulf of Xeros/Saros, keeping watch off Bulair at the neck of Gallipoli peninsula. Hidden battery opened fire, hit four times, damage not serious (Rn/Cn/D)

 

 

Wednesday 10 March 1915

  

MANX HERO, Admiralty trawler, 221/1910, W H Beeley, Grimsby-reg GY585, hired 8/14 as minesweeper, 1-6pdr, Admiralty No.339, Skipper Edward Bray RNR, one of seven trawlers with 3rd Minesweeping Group accompanied by two picket boats, four escorting destroyers and supported by battleship Canopus and light cruiser Amethyst, taking part in attempt to sweep Kephez minefields in the dark. Instead of sweeping against the strong 3-4kt current, the intention was to get above the first line of mines and sweep down. Trawlers reached their position, passed sweeps in pairs and started back. Night of 10th/11th - Two mines exploded, one of them possibly so close to Manx Hero she sank, otherwise she hit a third, Turks opened fire, two trawlers hit and damaged by 6in shells, all then retired under destroyer cover; no lives lost in Manx Hero, crew picked up by HM Trawler Koorah (+L/Lr/Rn/C/D/He/ap/dk/sc; ADM.137/1089)

 

 

Thursday 11 March 1915

 

Six trawler minesweepers again attempted to sweep the Kephez lines; one unknown trawler hit by 6in shell and repaired by Agamemnon's carpenters. Gunfire so heavy the trawlers soon withdrew, next night the French sweepers failed to make any progress sailing against the current, and it was decided to man some of the trawlers with regular navy crews. It was noted that the mines were “not as violent as North Sea mines” (Rn/ap/da)

 

 

Sunday 14 March 1915

  

 

Amethyst, old light cruiser (above - Photo Ships), Gem-class, 3,000t, 12-4in/8-3pdr/2-18in tt, supporting minesweepers in final attempt to clear the Kephez mines at night. Trawlers headed for positions above the mines to be swept, heavy fire disabled all the working crews of two trawlers with damage to gear and winches in the rest so great, only two vessels could get out their sweeps, leaving four trawlers and one picket boat out of action. Amethyst was near Kephez Point at this time trying to draw fire from the sweepers. Night of 14th/15th - Two shells exploded in stoker’s bathroom, starboard side forward and on messdeck; 21 killed and 28 severely wounded, of whom 4 DOW in Amethyst. Around 5 killed and 15 wounded in the other vessels (dk – only three others killed on the 14th, one in battleship Ocean and two on trawler Fentonian (following)) (Rn/Cn/da/dk/sm/sc)

 

Fentonian, Admiralty trawler, 221/1913, Grimsby-reg GY804, hired 3/15 as minesweeper, 1-6pdr, Admiralty No.448; 2 crew killed (D/dk)

 

 

Monday 15 March 1915

  

Dartmouth, light cruiser, Weymouth-class, 5,800t, believed within Dardanelles. Boiler explosion (1 of 12 Yarrow-manufactured) totally wrecking a boiler room, moved and anchored astern of battleship Agamemnon off Tenedos at 1100; 4 killed, seven died of injuries. Back in action within Dardanelles by 17th/18th (Rn/D/da/dk)

 

 

Thursday 18 March 1915

 

Final Naval Attack on the Narrows

 

With Adm de Robeck now in command, an all out attack was launched against the Narrows defences by most of the 14 British and 4 French capital ships in three main groups. Ranging from the European side to the Asiatic in line abreast, these were (ships in italic CAPITALS sunk, and italic lower case damaged. All images are Photo Ships, unless otherwise identified):

       

Line A, 1st Division - Queen Elizabeth, Agamemnon, Lord Nelson, Inflexible to go in first to bombard
 and dominate the Narrows forts.

HMS Queen Elizabeth,
Queen Elizabeth-class 
 

HMS Agamemnon,
Lord Nelson-class
 

HMS Lord Nelson,
Lord Nelson-class
(Maritime Quest)

HMS Inflexible,
Invincible-class battlecruiser
 

 
 
       

Line B, 3rd Division - French ships Gaulois, Charlemagne, BOUVET, Suffren to pass through Line A
and engage the forts more closely; cover by Prince George on the European side and Triumph on the Asiatic

FS Gaulois,
Charlemagne-class
 
 

FS Charlemagne,
Charlemagne-class
 
 

FS Bouvet,
Bouvet-class
 

FS Suffren,
Suffren-class

 (Maritime Quest)

 

 

HMS Prince George,
Majestic-class (Pat Gariepy)

HMS Triumph,
Swiftsure-class

 

 
 
       

2nd Division ships Vengeance, IRRESISTIBLE, Albion, OCEAN to relieve the French Line;

Majestic & Swiftsure to take over from Prince George & Triumph.

HMS Vengeance,
Canopus-class

HMS Irresistible,
Formidable-class
(Maritime Quest/Robert W Green)

HMS Albion,
Canopus-class

HMS Ocean,
Canopus-class

 

 

HMS Majestic,
Majestic-class

 (Pat Gariepy)

HMS Swiftsure,
Swiftsure-class

 

 
 
       

Minesweeping cover - Canopus and Cornwallis reserved for that night

 

HMS Canopus,
Canopus-class

HMS Cornwallis,
Duncan-class

 (Martime Quest)

 

 
 

Line A was in action about 1130, came under fire from concealed guns and howitzers but not badly hit until Agamemnon and Inflexible began to suffer:

 

Agamemnon, battleship, Lord Nelson-class, 17,680t, 4-12in/10-9.2in. Between 1245 and 1310 hit at least 12 times by 6in howitzers from Eren Keui, five times on the armour without damage, seven times above it, with much structural damage, continued in operation (Rn/Cn/D/da/sm/tg)

 

Inflexible, battlecruiser, Invincible-class, 20,080t, 8-12in/16-4in. Also under fire from Eren Keui howitzers, hit on the bridge and wireless put out of action about 1220, hit three more times in the next 10min and picket boat alongside sunk, forebridge on fire and hit twice more, stayed on station to support the French; some men wounded (Rn/Cn/D)

 

Queen Elizabeth, dreadnought, Queen Elizabeth-class, 31,500t, 8-15in/16-6in. Hit frequently on superstructure, not seriously damaged, continued in operation; few if any casualties (Rn/Cn/D/tg)

 

 

French Line B with Prince George and Triumph passed through Line A at 1220, Suffren was badly damaged, Gaulois badly holed and had to be beached on Rabbit Island, then as BOUVET (above - Photo Ships) passed back through British Line A she blew up near the Asiatic shore around 1345, presumed at the time to have been hit in a magazine by a Turkish shell or possibly by shore torpedo.

 

The British 2nd Division ships proceeded to take the place of the retiring French, opening fire at 1439. At 1514 there was a heavy explosion alongside Irresistible from a heavy shell. Between 1530 and 1600 mines were reported where Bouvet went down. Shortly after and in an area far short of the Kephez lines of mines, Inflexible exploded one, then Irresistible and, after trying to tow Irresistible clear, Ocean detonated yet another nearly two hours later.

 

Before then the general recall for all ships had been hoisted:

 

Inflexible, battlecruiser, Capt Phillimore, on station in Line A since 1430. Mined on starboard bow by the forward submerged flat around 1611, immediately flooded, ship began to list and settle by the head, made for Tenedos and water continued to rise, reached there with difficulty an hour and a half after the explosion, anchored on north side of island; 3 officers, 31 ratings and 1 civilian contractor lost including every man in the forward flat killed, wounded taken off in a cutter during the journey to Tenedos. Towed to Malta and repaired by May (Rn/Cn/dk)

 

 

IRRESISTIBLE, battleship (above, sinking - Pat Gariepy), Formidable-class, 15,800t, 1898, 4-12in/12-6in/18-12pdr/4-18in tt, 18kts, c780 crew, Pennant No.64, 5th BS Channel Fleet 8/14, then to Mediterranean, Capt Douglas Dent, with 2nd Division, hit alongside at 1514 by heavy shell from Fort Hamadieh and by 1532 had taken a slight list, drifting with engines stopped about 1615. Mined near Eren Keui Bay (J/C - shore torpedo from White Cliffs battery), exploded under starboard engine-room near centre-line, engine-room quickly flooded, midship bulkhead buckled and port engine-room flooded leaving both engines disabled. Took 7° list to starboard, down by the stern and Turks concentrated fire on her, destroyer Wear and a picket boat came to assist and Ocean was ordered to stand by to tow. As Irresistible could not be saved, abandon ship was ordered under heavy fire causing casualties on deck, but 10 volunteers stayed to get a wire across to Ocean, list increased and ship lay bows on to the Asiatic shore leaving Ocean subjected to cross-fire. The two ship's captains decided to take off the volunteers, Irresistible abandoned at 1750, and Ocean withdrew, the intention being for destroyers and minesweepers to try to save her after dark. According to the Turks, she drifted back towards the Narrows Forts, was fired on and sank about 1930 (He – about 2000; da - now partly salvaged, lays in 40.04N, 26.20E); 4 officers killed and one DOW, 7 ratings killed and one more DOW, only three men got out of the rapidly flooded engine room, 28 surviving officers and 582 men taken off by Wear (ke - 200 casualties, 610 survivors) (+J/Rn/C/Cn/D/He/da/dk/ke/mf; ADM.116/1443)

 

 

OCEAN, battleship (above - Photo Ships), Canopus-class, 14,300t, 1898, 4-12in/12-6in/12-12pdr/4-18in tt, c750 crew, Pennant No.N.56, 8th BS Channel Fleet 8/14, later to Mediterranean, Capt Arthur Hayes-Sadler, with 2nd Division, now withdrawing under heavy fire from Dardanos and other forts. Mined around 1805 (J - shore torpedo from White Cliffs battery; C - by shore batteries), detonated starboard side adjacent to coal bunkers, nearby passages flooded and helmed jammed to port, at the same time, hit starboard-side aft by a shell, tiller-room and starboard steering engine-room flooded and repairs not possible, took 15° list. Abandon ship ordered and crew taken off. Ship abandoned, hopefully to drift out of danger if she stayed afloat, Jed lay off with Capt Hayes-Sadler on board until dark, finally left to her fate about 1930. The Turks reported she drifted into Morto Bay and sank there about 2230 (da - now partly salvaged, lays in 40.03N, 26.17E); 1 rating lost (He/ke - all 683 crew saved), most of crew taken off by destroyers Colne, Jed and Chelmer under cross fire, four men accidently left on board rescued by Jed after dark (+J/Rn/C/Cn/D/He/dk/ke/mf; ADM.116/1443)

 

Mosquito, Racoon, G-class, c1,100t and Chelmer, Jed, Kennet, Wear, E-class, c630t, destroyers taking part in rescue operations, all subjected to "terrific" enemy gunfire. Racoon damaged by the concussion of a large shell bursting under water, also by shrapnel bullets; all destroyers "sustained comparatively few casualties” (D/dd)

 

The loss of Bouvet, Irresistible, Ocean and near-fatal damage to Inflexible were all due to a line of just 20 mines laid in Eren Keui Bay parallel to the Asiatic shore by 365t auxiliary minelayer Nousret or Nusret. The final Allied attempt to break through to Constantinople by naval power alone was over in just one day, with three capital ships sunk and three out of action out of the 16 taking part.

 

 

Sunday 21 March 1915

 

  

 

TB.064, torpedo boat (above, TB.057, close sister-ship - Photo Ships), Yarrow 125ft-type, c87t, 1886, 19kts, 2-3pdr/5-14in tt, 16 crew, Mediterranean-based patrol boat with TB’s 063 and 070, Chief Gunner James Cottrell in command, serving with Dardanelles forces waiting for weather to clear for bombardment to continue, strong NE gales. Night of 21st - Ran aground and wrecked E side of Lemnos island; no lives lost (+J/Rn/C/Cn/D/He/dk/ke; ADM.137/3119)

 

 

Saturday 17 April 1915

  

E.15, submarine, E-class, 667/807t, 23/4/14, 1-12pdr/5-18in tt with 10 torpedoes, 15kts/9kts, 30 crew, Pennant No.I.95, Harwich until 1915, then to Mediterranean, Lt-Cdr Theodore Brodie, first Allied attempt to break through Dardanelles to reach Sea of Marmara since failure of French Saphir on 15 January, departed Mudros night of 16th carrying former British Vice-Consul at Chanak, now Lt Palmer RNVR. The submerged submarine was swept by a strong current into shoal water and grounded, undamaged S of Kephez Point light at around 0600 on the 17th (Cn/D/He – 15th) only a few hundred yards from Fort Dardanos, fired on by the Fort's guns before they realised she was aground, one shell killed Lt Brodie as he climbed out of the conning tower, another burst in an ammonia tank or battery compartment and asphyxiated and killed five crew; with the captain lost, survivors took to water and taken prisoner. Turkish attempts to salvage her started with a torpedo boat trying to pull her off, this was thwarted by bombing attacks, and the decision taken to destroy E.15 where she lay. Submarine B.6 went in but because of heavy fire, failed to hit her with two torpedoes.

 

That night - the 17th still - destroyers Scorpion and Grampus could not find her because of screening searchlights. Next morning, B.11 failed in its search because of fog, and that afternoon battleships Majestic and Triumph tried to hit her with big guns from within the Dardanelles, but as the shore defences prevented them getting any nearer than 12,000yds, they had to give up. That night - the 18th (Cn - 16th) - a picket boat each from Majestic and Triumph fitted with 14in torpedo dropping gear were sent in under the command of Lt-Cdr Robinson of Vengeance, the officer who had already displayed much gallantry destroying guns on shore in February. Creeping forward in pitch darkness, the boats aproached Kephez Point, when searchlights caught them and heavy gunfire followed. Neither was hit, a searchlight accidentally illuminated E.14 and Majestic's boat launched her torpedo which may have found the target; shortly hit by a shell , she began to sink. Triumph also fired hers, rescued Majestic's crew and with only one man lost, returned safely. Next morning, the 19th, E.15 was reported destroyed (+J/Rn/C/Cn/D/He/bw/dk/dx/ke/md; ADM.1/8418/90)

 

 

Sunday 25 April 1915

 

Gallipoli Campaign

 

The Gallipoli "military" as distinct from the Dardanelles "naval" campaign started with Allied landings around the southern Gallipoli Peninsula.

 

From south round to the west, French troops landed near Kum Kale as a diversion, British 29th Division landed at "S"-Morto Bay, "V"-Sedd el Bahr or Cape Helles, "W"-Tekke Burnu, "X"-a mile north of Tekke Burnu and Y-beaches, and the two ANZAC divisions further north still at Z-beach north of Gaba Tepe, all, except the French on the European shore. A diversionary demonstration was made off Bulair at the neck of the Peninsular, and follow-up troops landing in the south included a Royal Marine brigade, the Royal Naval Division and an Indian brigade.

 

The landings required about 200 transports, supported by a fleet of 16 British battleships, 9 cruisers, 24 destroyers, 8 submarines including Australian AE.2, 2 French battleships, 3 cruisers, 5 destroyers, 4 submarines, Russian cruiser Askold, auxiliaries and minesweepers all under the command of Vice-Adm de Robeck, with Cdre Keyes as Chief of Staff.

 

Ships taking part included (those in italics incurred casualties – either killed in action or died of wounds on this date – and may have been damaged. See note at end of entry):

 

Fleet Flagship – dreadnought Queen Elizabeth

 

First Squadron (Main British landings, S to Y beaches) – battleships Swiftsure (2nd flag), Albion, Lord Nelson, Implacable, Vengeance, Prince George (attached to French landings), Goliath, Cornwallis, cruisers Minerva, Euryalus (flag), Talbot, Dublin, and six fleet minesweepers.

 

Second Squadron (Anzac Cove landings) – battleships Queen (flag), London, Prince of Wales, Triumph, Majestic, cruiser Bacchante, submarine depot ship Adamant, seaplane carrier Ark Royal, balloon ship Manica, destroyers Beagle, Bulldog, Foxhound, Scourge, Chelmer, Colne, Ribble, Usk, and four trawlers.

 

Third Squadron (feint attack on Bulair) – battleship Canopus, cruisers Dartmouth, Doris, and two destroyers.

 

Fourth Squadron (cruisers and trawlers attached to First) – cruisers Sapphire, Amethyst, and 12 trawlers.

 

Fifth Squadron (including minesweepers and netlayers) – battleship Agamemnon, 10 destroyers, three French minesweepers, two netlaying trawlers.

 

Sixth Squadron (French landings) – two French battleships, three French cruisers, seven destroyers and five torpedo boats.

 

Seventh Squadron (Smyrna blockade) – four destroyers and armed yacht Triad.

 

Many of the troops were landed ashore in ship's boats from battleships and by destroyers, the only specialist assault ship was SS River Clyde:

 

River Clyde, landing assault ship, ex-collier, 3,913/1905, Ormond Cook & Co, Glasgow, purchased 12/4/15, converted by Cdr Unwin of minesweeping gunboat Hussar to land 2,500 troops directly ashore. Ports were cut in River Clyde's side, she towed a steam hopper port side and four lighters alongside, two on either bow, material was carried for a permanent pier and armoured machine-gun positions mounted on the forecastle. In operation, River Clyde was to be grounded, the hopper steam past, ground itself and drop down a gangway, troops would leave through the ports on each side, enter one lighter, cross to the second to reach the hopper and then ashore.

 

Beached just before 0700 under "murderous fire" at the Seddul Bahr end of V-beach (the other end was Cape Helles), the hopper grounded too far from the shore for the gangway to reach and the front lighter swung away, only 200 troops reached the land in the first three hours, leaving many others dead and wounded. Even this small success was only made possible by Cdr Unwin and members of the crew who in full view of the Turks, secured and held the lighters and hopper as the troops passed over. Cdr Unwin stood in the water holding lines and although wounded, later rescued other wounded from the shore by boat, Midshipman Drewry in command of the hopper was also wounded but carried on until Midshipman Malleson took over, AB William stayed in the water holding the pontoon fast until he was killed and Seaman Samson worked on the lighters all day before being badly wounded. The main body of troops only landed that night. Mid George Leslie Drewry RNR (from Hussar), Mid Wilfred St Aubyn Malleson (battleship Cornwallis), Seaman George McKenzie Samson RNR (Hussar), Cdr Edward Unwin (Hussar), AB William Charles William RFR (Hussar) posthumously, were all awarded the Victoria Cross. River Clyde was later salvaged, sold 1920, renamed Angela, not broken up until 1966 (Rn/C/dx/mf/ms/vc)

 

 

Beagle, Bulldog (above - Navy Photos), Foxhound, Scourge, G-class, c1,100t, 1-4in/3-12pdr/2-18in tt and Chelmer, Colne, Ribble, Usk, E-class, c630t, 4-12pdr, 2-18in tt, destroyers taking part in landings on Z-beach, later known as Anzac Cove, with 2nd Squadron (Rear-Adm Thursby). Four thousand men of 3rd Australian Brigade carried as an advanced guard by battleships Queen (flag), Prince of Wales, London and six of the destroyers, rest of the Anzac Corps in transports anchored offshore, cover provided by battleships Triumph, Majestic and cruiser Bacchante. Sixteen laden ship's lifeboats were towed in by picket boats, followed by equally-laden destroyers towing more lifeboats for their troops to disembark in; landing started around 0430, destroyers came under heavy machine gun and rifle fire. Many troops killed on the decks, crews suffered casualties. By 1400, 12,000 troops of 1st Australian Division were ashore with two batteries of Indian artillery, and within 24 hours, the 2nd Australian Division including a New Zealand Brigade had joined them (Rn/Cn/D/dd)

 

Two more G-class destroyers, 5th DF Mediterranean Fleet, temporarily equipped as minesweepers, also hit by Turkish shore fire, probably other destroyers damaged as well at other times:

 

Mosquito, heavy casualties including first Lieutenant killed (dk – only man killed) (Cn/D/dd/dk)

 

Racoon, Lt-Cdr A Muller. Date uncertain, sometime after 25 April - hit in one her boilers off Seddul Bahr (Rn/Cn/D/mf)

                                                                  

Note: Kindell lists the following warship casualties on the 25th. It is not known if all those who died of wounds were wounded on this day or previously:

 

Dreadnought Queen Elizabeth (1 kia); battleships Agamemnon (3 dow), Albion (2 dow), Canopus (3 kia), Cornwallis (15 kia), Implacable (2 kia), Lord Nelson (4 kia), Prince George (1 kia), Prince of Wales (1 dow), Queen (1 kia), Swiftsure (1 dow), Triumph (1 dow), Vengeance (1 kia); armoured cruisers Bacchante (1 kia, 1 dow), Euryalus (6 kia); destroyers Chelmer (1 kia), Mosquito (1 kia); assault ship River Clyde (1 kia); despatch boat Osiris (1 kia, 1 dow); and submarine depot ship Adamant (1 kia).

 

More men from some of these ships died of wounds over the succeeding days, but again, it is not known how many of them were wounded on the 25th. It is assumed all these warships may have been damaged to some, mainly small, extent, although some of the casualties may have occurred ashore, during ship-to-shore operations or while serving in other ships e.g. AB William Williams of HMS Hussar awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously in action with River Clyde. Royal Navy Division losses on the day were 13, with many more sadly to come (dk)

 

 

Monday 26 April 1915

 

The British Y-beach was evacuated and the French withdrew from the Asiatic shore to reinforce the British right inland of De Totts battery

 

 

Tuesday 27 April 1915

 

Lt-Cdr Edward Courtney Boyle (CO, HM S/M E.14) arrived in the Sea of Marmara on the 27th at the start of a successful patrol, returning on 18 May in time to brief Lt-Cdr Nasmith of E.11. Lt-Cdr Boyle was awarded the VC for this and two further patrols

  

BALMEDIE, Admiralty trawler, 205/1906, Balgownie Steam Trawl Fishing Co, Aberdeen-reg A113, hired 8/14 as minesweeper, Admiralty No.350, Skipper George Reynolds RNR. In collision, sank in the Dardanelles (C - off); no lives lost (+Lr/C/D/He/dk)

 

Scorpion and Wolverine, destroyers, G-class, c,1,100t, 1-4in/3-12pdr/2-18in tt, 5th DF Mediterranean Fleet, two of nine temporarily-equipped minesweeping destroyers, sweeping some way inside the Straits to allow the battleships to reach bombardment positions, sweep wires passed and drawing apart. Turkish 4.1in shore batteries opened fire, Wolverine hit on bridge, Scorpion by shell in seaman’s messdeck which started a fire, soon put out; Wolverine lost Cdr O Prentis her captain, a sub-lieutenant RNR and coxswain (dk – on the 28th, probably night of 27th/28th). There were a few shrapnel holes in Scorpion (Lt-Cdr A B Cunningham - “ABC” of WW2 fame) soon repaired by destroyer depot ship Blenheim. Over the succeeding days, more destroyers were hit and damaged (Cn/D/cu/dd/dk)

 

 

Wednesday 28 April 1915

 

First Battle of Krithia; 3rd Royal Marine Battalion landed, Royal Marine Corps Memorable Date - GALLIPOLI

 

Albion, battleship, Canopus-class, 14,300t, 4-12in/12-6in, above Morto Bay on European side off Kereves Dere, providing gunfire support for French forces, shortly after noon, about to be relieved by Lord Nelson. Hit and damaged by Turkish shellfire, leaking and retired to Mudros for three days for repairs (Rn/D/Cn)

 

 

Friday 30 April 1915

 

L/Cpl Walter Richard Parker RMLI (Portsmouth Battalion, RN Division), to 1 May, Gallipoli, stretcher bearer, also carried ammunition and supplies to isolated position under intense enemy fire and cared for wounded.  Awarded the Victoria Cross.

 

AE.2, Australian submarine, E-class, 655/796t, 1913, 1-12pdr/4-18in tt with 8 torpedoes, 15/9kts, 30 crew, to Mediterranean 3/15, Lt-Cdr Henry Stoker, first Australian/British submarine to break through the Dardanelles to the Sea of Marmara reaching there on the 26th, now heading for Gulf of Atarki, SW part of Marmara to rendezvous with E.14 which had followed AE.2 in. Sighted Turkish gunboat, lost control and came to the surface only 100yds off, Sultan Hissar (French-built 38m-type torpedo boat Sultanhissar) launched torpedoes which missed, then opened fire making a number of hits, AE.2 surfaced to allow the crew to get off, then scuttled near the island of Marmara (C - hit by shore batteries); all crew saved, 4 ratings died as POW's in 1916. Wreck believed found in 1999 at 240ft (+J/C/Cn/D/He/bw/dk/dx/ke/on/www; ADM.137/2077)

 

 

Sunday 2 May 1915

  

Albion, battleship, Canopus-class, 14,300t, 4-12in/12-6in, just returned from repairing damage sustained on 28/4/15, providing gunfire support with Agamemnon, Goliath, Prince George, Vengeance off southern beachheads, operating on French right. Hit badly by Turkish gunfire from Asiatic shore in evening, retired to Mudros again to make good the damage. Next day Prince George, Majestic-class, c16,000t, 4-12in/12-6in, was holed on the waterline by a 6in shell from the Asiatic batteries, had to leave for Mudros, and then for Malta to dock (Rn/D/da)

 

 

Thursday 6 May 1915

 

Second Battle of Krithia to 8th; Sub-Lt Arthur Walderne St Clair Tisdall RNVR (Anson Battalion, RN Division) killed ashore on 6th, awarded Victoria Cross for gallantry.

 

 

Thursday 13 May 1915

  

 

GOLIATH, battleship (above - Maritime Quest), Canopus-class, 14,300t, 1898, 4-12in/12-6in/12-12pdr/4-18in tt, 18 kts, c750 crew, Pennant No.N.54, 8th BS Channel Fleet 8/14, later to Mediterranean, Capt Thomas Shelford. French forces under heavy attack inland of S-Beach, night of 12th/13th, Goliath and Cornwallis providing gunfire support, both anchored in exposed position in Morto Bay off Seddul Bahr village, Cornwallis astern of Goliath, destroyers Beagle, Bulldog, Pincher, Scorpion, Wolverine on patrol, night very dark, foggy around midnight, attacks were suspected. Turkish destroyer Muavenet-i-Miliet, partly German-manned and commanded by Lt-Cdr Rudoph Firle came down the Dardanelles, avoided Bulldog and Beagle around 0100, spotted the battleships and came round Eski Hissarlik Point under De Totts battery, challenged by Goliath at 0115 but steamed ahead and fired all three torpedo tubes as Goliath opened fire, one torpedo hit abreast fore turret, a second by the foremost funnel, and the third near after turret, ship immediately began listing badly to port and soon on beam ends, turned turtle, floated for a few minutes, then went down bow first; 505 lives lost - 20 officers including her Captain, 479 ratings, 4 canteen staff, 2 ratings DOW (Cn/He/ke - 570 men lost, 180 survivors). Wolverine and Scorpion tried to cut off the torpedo boat as it headed back up the Straits but failed (+J/Rn/C/Cn/D/He/dk/dx/ke/mf; ADM.116/1446)

 

 

Saturday 22 May 1915

  

Albion, battleship, Canopus-class, 14,300t, 4-12in/12-6in, providing gunfire support off the Anzac beachhead just south of Anzac Cove. Ran aground off Gabe Tepe on 22nd, under close-range fire by Turkish shore batteries and frequently hit, towed off by sister-ship Canopus on 23rd, left for Malta for repairs; one man killed, ten wounded, believed from Albion (Cn/D/da/mf)

 

 

Tuesday 25 May 1915

  

First U-boat attacks on ships off Gallipoli by U.21 (Lt-Cdr Otto Hersing):

 

Vengeance, battleship, Canopus-class, zigzagging up from Mudros to meet sister-ship Canopus and relieve her as gunfire support ship off Anzac Cove, submarines were expected in the area and a periscope was spotted at 0730 off the Dardanelles entrance, it was also seen heading north and at one point passed between battleships Swiftsure and Agamemnon, then disappeared, sea calm and visibility good. Due east of Cape Kephalo, Imbros island at 1000 Vengeance spotted a torpedo coming towards her from shorewards, swung clear and continued on to Gaba Tepe. Alarms and sightings continued during the morning (Rn/D/ge)

 

 

TRIUMPH, battleship (above - Photo Ships), Swiftsure-class, 11,985t, building as Chilean Libertad, launched 1903, purchased by Admiralty before completion, 4-10in/14-7.5in/14-14pdr/2-18in tt, 20kts, c700 crew, China Station 8/14, later to Mediterranean, Capt Maurice Fitzmaurice, providing gunfire support for Anzac beachhead, under way off Gaba Tepe with nets down, light guns manned and watertight doors closed, destroyer Chelmer patrolling round her at 15kts. Periscope sighted at 1225 on Triumph's starboard beam, Chelmer dashed for it, Triumph started firing but a a minute later a torpedo fired by U.21 (J - U.51) passed through the nets and hit her, almost immediately took on 10° list and continued to heel over, Chelmer came under her stern walk to take off a large number of men, capsized 10min after being hit, floated bottom-up for 30min then sank bow first just NW of Gaba Tepe off Ari Burnu/Anzac Cove. The scene was apparently so dramatic and unexpected, ANZAC and Turkish troops reportedly stopped fighting and stood to watch her end; 3 officers, 52 ratings lost (Rn/Cn/He/ke - 3 officers, 70 men lost, over 500 survivors). With the U-boat threat, continuous battleship support was no longer possible, a severe blow to the Australian and New Zealand troops (+J/Rn/C/Cn/D/He/dk/ke/mf; ADM.116/1444)

 

 

Thursday 27 May 1915

  

 

MAJESTIC, battleship (above - Pat Gariepy), Majestic-class, 16,060t, 1895, 4-12in/12-6in/16-12pdr/12-3pdr/5-18in tt, 17kts, c757 crew, Pennant No.D.04, Capt Henry Talbot, flagship of Rear-Adm Nicholson from 26th, providing gunfire support in Cape Helles area (J/He/ke - off W-beach), at anchor among unloading transports with torpedo nets out, as close inshore as possible, destroyers patrolling off shore. Periscope of U.21 (Otto Hersing) (J - U.23) spotted at 0645, 400 yds away on port beam, opened fire immediately but torpedo had already been fired, went right through the nets and hit amidships, second soon followed, ship capsized in 7min off Cape Helles (da - could be seen from V-beach; ke - W shore of Cape Helles; mf - W of Sedd-el-Bahr village; Cn - off Gaba Tepe near Anzac Cove); 42 ratings, 2 canteen staff lost, killed by the explosion or entangled in nets (Rn/Cn/He/ke - 40 casualties; 737 survivors). Sank in only 54ft of water, rested on foremast with fore-end of keel and bottom awash before disappearing under during the November storms. The withdrawal of bombarding battleships following the sinking of Goliath, Triumph and Majestic was a major victory for the Turks (+J/Rn/C/Cn/D/He/da/dk/ke/mf/un; ADM.1/8422/144, ADM.116/1443)

 

 

Friday 4 June 1915

 

Third Battle of Krithia

 

 

Sunday 6 June 1915

 

IMMINGHAM, Admiralty store carrier, ex-passenger steamer, 2,083/1906, Grimsby-reg, Great Central Railway, hired as accommodation ship 10/14, RFA store carrier from 4/15, Pennant No.Y8.50, described as "errand boy" between Imbros island and Mudros during Gallipoli campaign. In collision with hired screw minesweeper Reindeer 1,101grt, sank off Mudros, Lemnos island. Owners claimed £100,000 compensation but only awarded £45,000 by the Admiralty (+Lr/C/Cn/D/ns)

 

 

Friday 25 June 1915

  

E.12, submarine, E-class, 667/807t, 5/9/14, 1-6pdr/5-18in with 10 torpedoes, Lt-Cdr Bruce, penetrated Dardanelles and now operating in eastern part of Sea of Marmara after spending two days repairing main engines, entered Gulf of Mudania and came across two small steamers towing five sailing vessels, turned out to be decoy vessels. Only 10yds from first steamer when a bomb was thrown which failed to explode, fired on with rifles and small masked gun, two towed vessels joined in and tried to foul E.12's propellers. E.12 returned fire, got clear and sank the two steamers and two of the towed sailing vessels. Engine problems now returned; one rating slightly wounded (Rn/Cn/md)

 

 

Monday 12 July 1915

 

British offensive at Helles to 13th

 

 

Saturday 7 August 1915

  

Scourge, destroyer, G-class, c1,100t, one of ten destroyers taking part in Suvla landings, each one carried in 500 troops on deck with another 500 in a towed X or motor lighter, Scourge landed her men on C-beach, S of Nibrunesi Point. Now trying to get some of the lighters off the ground, hit in engine-room by Turkish shell around 0830 and had to retire for repairs; casualties uncertain, but one rating lost (Rn/Cn/dd/dk)

 

X-lighters, ramped self-propelled landing craft, X.1-series, designed for Dardanelles, launched 4-7/15, 160t, could carry 500 troops, carried K numbers, known as K-boats, motor lighters, also nicknamed "beetles". At least 10 lighters, numbered K.1-10 took part in the Suvla landings, some of which may not have got off, others damaged by gunfire (Rn/Cn/da/ec)

 

 

Thursday 12 August 1915

  

Short Type 184 seaplanes from carrier Ben-my-Chree carried out first ever aerial torpedo attacks, launching 14in torpedoes in the Dardanelles area against Turkish ships on the 12th and 17th, results in ships sunk or damaged is uncertain.

 

Swiftsure, battleship, Swiftsure-class, 11,800t, 4-10in/14-7.5in and Grafton, ex-1st-class protected cruiser, Edgar-class, 7,350t, 2-9.2in/10-6in, now bulged or "blister ship", providing gunfire support off Suvla beaches. Swiftsure hit by 12-pdr field gun, 5 ratings lost, 10 wounded, one of whom died. Grafton off C-beach, S of Nibrunesi Point lost 9 ratings killed, 10 wounded (Casualty list) (Cn/da/dk)

 

Manica, kite balloon ship, 4,120/1900, hired 12/5/15, supporting Suvla landings. (da - 14th) - Torpedo fired by UB.8 from 500yds passed under her shallow draught (da - submarine sighted outside net, two torpedoes fired and missed Manica, hit net at acute angle and burst). Attack two days later on a similar vessels also unsuccessful (D/da/md)

 

 

Monday 16 August 1915

 

LUNDY, Admiralty trawler, 188/1908, Hull-reg H993, Hull Steam Fishing & Ice, hired 5/15, 1‑3pdr, Admiralty No.1791, patrol vessel, Skipper Henry Charles Taylor RNR. In collision, sank in Suvla Bay; one ratings lost (+Lr/C/D/He/dk/hw; ADM.137/3135)

 

 

Wednesday 18 August 1915

 

Barry, fleet messenger and store carrier, ex-excursion paddle steamer, 398/1907, hired 29/6/15 (C - as minesweeper), Pendant No.Y4.28, based at Mudros, serving as supply ship off Dardanelles, carrying supplies to Suvla Bay. In collision with hired screw minesweeper Whitby Abbey (do - ABS) in Mudros Bay, Lemnos island, stern badly damaged, had to unload cargo, repaired by repair ship Reliance. Believed returned to duties in September carrying men, ammunition, mail and supplies to Anzac Cove and Suvla Bay, often under shellfire but never hit (C/Cn/D/da/do)

 

 

Saturday 21 August 1915

 

British offensive at Suvla

 

 

Saturday 4 September 1915

  

E.7, submarine, E-class, 655/796t, 1913, 1-12pdr/4-18in tt with 8 torpedoes, 15/9kts, 30 crew, Pennant No.I.87, fitted with 6pdr in 1915, Lt-Cdr Archibald Cochrane, attempting to break through Dardanelles defences to Sea of Marmara to relieve E.11 and partner E.7, set out from Kephalo Bay at 0200 on 4th. Reached Nagara Point at 0700, starboard propeller fouled anti-submarine net, struggled for 12 hours to get free, blowing and flooding tanks and manouevring, which only alerted the defences. Lt Heino von Hemburg commander of UB.14 (ke - U.14) was rowed out to the approximate position, reportedly by the boat's cook, with one or more small mines which were lowered and detonated near the trapped submarine. According to Hepper, the first mine exploded at 1030 shaking the boat, and a second at 1840 which broke lights and other equipment. Lt Cochrane accepted E.7 would be destroyed, burnt the confidential papers, prepared for scuttling, came to the surface and blew her up (C/Cn - on 5th); no lives lost, all 38 crew saved, taken to Constantinople as POW's (+J/Rn/C/Cn/D/He/bw/dk/go/ke)

 

 

Saturday 18 September 1915

  

Swiftsure, battleship, Swiftsure-class, 11,890t, proceeding Mudros for Suvla. Believed attacked by U-boat - possibly U.21, but not recorded in German Official History (Rn/Cn/D/ge)

 

 

Thursday 28 October 1915

 

HYTHE, auxiliary screw minesweeper (J - paddle), ex-railway packet, 509/1905, London-reg, South Eastern & Chatham Railway Companies Managing Committee, hired 18/10/14, 1 or 2-12pdr, Pennant No.T.10, Lt-Cdr Arthur Bird RNR. Probably night of 28/29th - In collision with armed boarding steamer Sarnia, 1,498grt, sank near Cape Helles, Dardanelles; 9 ratings, 2 MN lost (He – 10 crew and 145 troops lost) (+J/Lr/C/Cn/D/He/dk/dx; ADM.137/3136)

 

 

Sunday 31 October 1915

 

 

LOUIS, destroyer (above - Photo Ships), L-class, c1,300t, 1913, 3‑4in/1-Maxim mg/4‑21in tt, 29kts, c73 crew, Pennant No.H.07, 3rd DF Harwich on completion, to Mediterranean early 1915, Lt-Cdr Harold Adair- Hall, Gallipoli evacuation plans now being made but likely to be endangered by winter storms, SW storm now blowing, at anchor. Anchors dragged and driven ashore early hours of 31st in Suvla Bay, had to be abandoned, strong SW winds blew for three weeks preventing salvage, reduced to a wreck over the weeks by Turkish artillery; no lives lost (ke - all 102 crew saved) (+J/Rn/C/Cn/D/he/dk/dx/ke; ADM.137/191, ADM.53/47327

 

 

Monday 1 November 1915

 

MARSDEN, Admiralty hired iron paddle tug, 131grt, 1906, Newcastle-reg, France, Fenwick Tyne & Wear, hired 24/6/15, serving off Gallipoli, Sub‑Lt Albert Trick. (C/D - 31 October) - Driven ashore by gale at Suvla Bay, W Gallipoli peninsula, stranded, later destroyed by Turkish gunfire. Owners received £6,500 compensation; no lives lost (+C/D/He/dk/mc/tu)

 

 

Saturday 6 November 1915

 

 

E.20, submarine (above, sister boat E.19 - Navy Photos/Antoine), E-class, 667/807t, 12/6/15, 1-6in howitzer for shore bombardment/5-18in tt with 10 torpedoes, 15/9kts, 30 crew, Pennant No.I.69, Lt-Cdr Clyfford Warren, successfuly reached Sea of Marmara. Due to rendezvous with French submarine Turquoise near Rodosto, NE part of Sea of Marmara on 6th, but Turquoise had been captured on 30/10/15, reportedly with charts and other documents intact including details of the planned meeting. (C/D - 5th) - UB.14 (Heino von Heimburg) waited submerged at the rendezvous, at 1600 sighted E.20 laying stopped, fired single torpedo at 1710 at the still stationery target from 550yds, hit her amidships and she sank instantly; 21 ratings lost (ke - 27), UB.14 surfaced and rescued the 9 survivors including Cdr Warren who were on the deck at the time (+J/C/Cn/D/He/bw/dk/dx/ke/un)

 

E.20 was the last of four British and four French submarines lost in the Dardanelles in 1915 out of a total of 13 boats that took part. Turkish losses remain uncertain but are quoted as 1 battleship, 1 old battleship/coast defence ship, 1 destroyer, 5 gunboats, 11 transports and around 200 steamers and sailing boats.

 

 

Saturday 18 December 1915

 

Three vessels scuttled at Suvla Beach, W Gallipoli peninsula by the 18th for the final evacuation:

 

FIERAMOSCA, Admiralty blockship, 578/1873, 170ft, Bari, Italy-reg, Puglia SS, purchased 1914/15 originally for use at Malta. Scuttled as pier and breakwater (Lr/Rn/D)

 

PINA, steamship, presumably Admiralty blockship. Scuttled as breakwater (ms – lists a Pina, cargo steamship, 1,986/1883, but believed lost March 1917. This is the only pre-WW1 Pina not definitely accounted for) (Rn/ms)

 

Dredger (name unknown), already wrecked, possibly Admiralty blockship. Sunk as boat pier (Rn)

 

 

Sunday 19 December 1915

 

Evacuation of Suvla and Anzac beachheads started, completed night of 20th/21st.

 

 

Wednesday 29 December 1915

  

Two Admiralty blockships were scuttled at "W" -Tekke Burnu beach, S tip of Gallipoli peninsula by 29th as breakwaters for final evacuation. Note: French old battleship Massena & French steamer Saghalien, 4,058/1881 were sunk as breakwaters at "V"- Sedd el Bahr or Cape Helles beach, in November (+ms):

 

MARIE DELLE VITTORIE (ms – Maria …..), cargo steamship, ex-Clan liner Clan Graham, 2,926/1882, T Astarita (Rn/ms)

 

VINCENZO FLORIO, 2,752 (ms – 2,840)/1880 was Genoa, Italy-reg, I & V Florio & Co, Palermo/Servizi Marittimo (Lr/Rn/ms)

 

 

 

1916

 

 

Saturday 8 January 1916

 

Evacuation of Helles completed on 9th bringing the campaign to an end

 

Prince George, battleship, Majestic-class, c16,000t, taking part in Gallipoli evacuation off Cape Helles, with sister ship Mars carrying a total of 3,400 troops. Reportedly hit by torpedo which failed to explode, but later presumed to have hit wreckage (Rn/Cn/D)

 

 

 

1918

 

 

Last Sortie of the Goeben and Breslau

Loss of HM Submarine E.14

(links to be added)

 

 

Saturday 23 March 1918

  

ARNO, destroyer (above - Navy Photos), building Ansaldo, Genoa as Portuguese Liz, c750t, launched 22/12/14, purchased 3/15 while fitting out, c4‑12pdr/3‑18in tt, 29kts, c70 crew, Pennant No.D.06, escort duties in Mediterranean from 1915. In collision with H-class destroyer Hope 970t, sank off Dardanelles; 1 officer, 1 rating lost (ke - no casualties) (+J/C/Cn/D/He/dk/ke; ADM.156/41)

 

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